AP cp 16 CP

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  1. 2 major divisions of the autonomic nervous system
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic
  2. How many motor neurons are required to conduct an action potential from the spinal cord to smooth muscles in the wall of the intestine?
    2, 1 carries the AP from the SC to the autonomic ganglion and the other carries the AP from the autonomic ganglion to the smooth muscle
  3. Confrontation with angry dog: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for the physiological changes that occur as you turn and run
  4. On the basis of anatomy, how could you distinguish the sympathetic division from the parasympathetic
    • S: preganglionic fibers from the lumbar and thoracic portions of teh spina lcord,
    • P: preganglionic fibers from the cranial and sacral portions
  5. Where do the nerves that synapse in collateral ganglia originate?
    Inferior thoracic and superior lumbar portions of the SC; pass through chain gangioa to the collateral gangila
  6. How would a drug that stimulates acetylcholine receptors affect the sympathetic nervous system?
    Preganglionic fibers fo the SNS release ACh; so a drug that stimulates ACh receptors would stimulate the postganglionic fibers of sypathetic nerves, resulting in increased sympathetic activity
  7. An individual with high blood pressure is given a medication that blocks beta receptors. How could this memdication help correct that person's condition
    decrease or prevent sympathetic stimulation of tissues containing those cells. Heart rate, force of contraction of cardiac muscle, and contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels would decrease, lowering blood pressure
  8. Which nerve is responsible for the PS innervation of the lungs, heart, stomach, liver, pancreas, and parts of the small and large intestines?
    vagus nerve
  9. Why si the PS sometimes referred to as the anabolic system?
    PS stimulation leads to a general increase in the nutrient content of the blood. Cells throughout the body respond to the increase by absorbing the nuturients using them to support growth and other anabolic activities.
  10. What neurotransmitter is released by all parasympathetic neurons
  11. Name two types of ACh receptors on the postsynaptic membranes of parasympathetic neurons
    Nicotinic and muscarinic
  12. How would the stimulation of muscarinic receptors in cardiac muscle affect the heart
    cause K+ channels to open, resulting in hyperpolarization of cardiac plasma membranes and a decreased heart rate
  13. What effect would the loss of sympathetic tone have on blood flow to a tissue?
    relax the smooth muscles lining the vessels (vasodilation); increase blood flow to tissue
  14. What physiological change would you expect in a patient who is about to undergo a root canal and is anxious
    increase sympathetic stimulation; dry mouth; increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate; cold sweats; urination dilated pupils; butterflies in stomach
  15. visceral reflex
    automatic motor response that can be modified, facilitated, or inhibited by higher centers, especially those of teh hypothalamus
  16. Brain tumor interfering with function of hypothalamus. Would this interfere with autonomic function? Why or why not?
    yes, centers in the posterior and lateral hypothalamus coordinate and regulate sympathetic function, wheras centers in the anterior and medial hypothalamus control parasympathetic
  17. 3 characteristics of higher-order function
    • 1) require action by cerebral cortex
    • 2) involve both conscious and unconscious information processing
    • 3) are subject to modification and adjustment over time
  18. recall facts=what type of memory
    test-taking involves short term
  19. two general levels of sleep that have characteristic patterns of brain wave activity
    deep sleep, rapid eye movement
  20. You are asleep, what would happen if your reticular activating system (RAS) were suddenly stimulated?
    it would rouse teh cerebrum to a state of consciousness-you would wake up
  21. What would be an effect of a drug that substaintially increases the amount of serotonin releases in the brain?
    produce a heightened perception of certain sensory stimuli (auditory or visual) and hallucinations
  22. neurotransmitters thought to be involved with the regulation of awake-asleep cycles
    serotonin and norepinephrine
  23. Amphetamines stimulate the secretion of which neurotransmitter
  24. One of the associated effects of aging is difficulty in recalling things, or even total loss of memory. What are some possible reasons for these changes
    loss of neurons, changes in synaptic organization of the brain, changes in the neurons themselves, decreased blood flow-affect the metabolic rate of neurons and perhaps slow the retrieval of info from memory
  25. several common age-related anatomical changes in the nervous system
    reduction in brain size and weight, a reduction in the number of neurons, decrease blood flow to the brain, changes in synaptic org of brain,
  26. Most common form of senile dementia
    Alzheimer disease
  27. Role of the nervous system in the functioning of all other body systems
    Monitors pressure, pain, temperature, and adjusts tissue and blood flow patterns for all other body systems
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AP cp 16 CP
AP cp 16 CP
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