Social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription
Group uniting all men or women(usually men) born during a certain time span; this group controls property and often has political and military functions
Social status (e.g. race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying
Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A ____ includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up seasonally
Figure often found among tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists. _____ occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither wealth nor his position passes to his heirs
Closed, hereditary system of stratification, often dictated by religion; hierarchical social status is ascribed at birth, so that people are locked into their parents' social position
Form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure
The means by which disputes are socially regulated and settled; found in all societies, but the resolution methods tend to be more formal and effective in states than in nonstates.
Unequal _____ to resources; basic attribute of chiefdoms and states. Superordinates have favored ____ to such resources, while the access of subordinates is limited bu superordinates.
Pertaining to finances and taxation
A legal code, including trial and enforcement; characteristics of state-organized socities
Permanent political position
Stratification system that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank
A non-kin based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages
The ability to exercise one's will over others-- to do what one wants; the basis of political status
Esteem, respect, or approval for acts, deeds, or qualities considered exemplary
The most extreme, coercive, abusive, and inhumane form of legalized unequality; people are treated as property
Classification scheme based on the scale and complexity of social orginization and the effectiveness of political regulation; includes band, tribe, cheifdom, and state
Complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. An independent, centrally organized political unit, a government.
Any position that determines where someone fits in society; may be ascribed or achieved
Characteristics of a system with socioeconomic strata
The lower, or underprivileged, group in a stratified system
The upper, or privileged, group in a stratified system.
Form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism. Socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in _____, and there is no mens of enforcing political decisions.
Upward or downward change in a person's social status
Leadership position in a village (as among the Yanomami, where the ____ is always a man); has limited authority; leads by example and persuasion
All a person's material assets, including income, land, and other types of property; the basis of economic status