Chapter 6

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  1. Achieved Status
    Social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription
  2. Age set
    Group uniting all men or women(usually men) born during a certain time span; this group controls property and often has political and military functions
  3. Ascribed Status
    Social status (e.g. race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying
  4. Band
    Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A ____ includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up seasonally
  5. Big Man
    Figure often found among tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists. _____ occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither wealth nor his position passes to his heirs
  6. Caste System
    Closed, hereditary system of stratification, often dictated by religion; hierarchical social status is ascribed at birth, so that people are locked into their parents' social position
  7. Chiefdom
    Form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure
  8. Conflict Resolution
    The means by which disputes are socially regulated and settled; found in all societies, but the resolution methods tend to be more formal and effective in states than in nonstates.
  9. Differential Access
    Unequal _____ to resources; basic attribute of chiefdoms and states. Superordinates have favored ____ to such resources, while the access of subordinates is limited bu superordinates.
  10. Fiscal
    Pertaining to finances and taxation
  11. Law
    A legal code, including trial and enforcement; characteristics of state-organized socities
  12. Office
    Permanent political position
  13. Open-class System
    Stratification system that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank
  14. Pantribal Sodality
    A non-kin based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages
  15. Power
    The ability to exercise one's will over others-- to do what one wants; the basis of political status
  16. Prestige
    Esteem, respect, or approval for acts, deeds, or qualities considered exemplary
  17. Slavery
    The most extreme, coercive, abusive, and inhumane form of legalized unequality; people are treated as property
  18. Sociopolitical Typology
    Classification scheme based on the scale and complexity of social orginization and the effectiveness of political regulation; includes band, tribe, cheifdom, and state
  19. State(nation-state)
    Complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. An independent, centrally organized political unit, a government.
  20. Status
    Any position that determines where someone fits in society; may be ascribed or achieved
  21. Stratification
    Characteristics of a system with socioeconomic strata
  22. Subordinate
    The lower, or underprivileged, group in a stratified system
  23. Superordinate
    The upper, or privileged, group in a stratified system.
  24. Tribe
    Form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism. Socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in _____, and there is no mens of enforcing political decisions.
  25. Vertical Mobility
    Upward or downward change in a person's social status
  26. Village Head
    Leadership position in a village (as among the Yanomami, where the ____ is always a man); has limited authority; leads by example and persuasion
  27. Wealth
    All a person's material assets, including income, land, and other types of property; the basis of economic status
Card Set
Chapter 6
Political Systems
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