Chapter 9

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  1. Animism
    Belief in souls or doubles
  2. Cargo Cults
    Postcolonial, acculturative, religious movements common in Melanesia that attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior
  3. Communal Religions
    In Wallace's typology, these religions have -- on addition to shamanic cults --- communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage
  4. Communitas
    Intense communirt spirit , a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experienceing liminality together
  5. Leveling Mechanism
    Customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms
  6. Liminality
    The critically important marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage
  7. Magic
    Ue of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
  8. Mana
    Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Plynesian religions
  9. Monotheism
    Worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being
  10. Olympian Religions
    In Wallace's typology, develop with state orginaization; have full-time religious specialists-- professional preisthoods
  11. Polytheism
    Belief in several deities who control aspects of nature
  12. Religion
    Beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces
  13. Revitalization Movements
    Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society.
  14. Rites of Passage
    Culturally defined activies associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another
  15. Rituals
    Behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; rituals are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
  16. Shaman
    A part-time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinart people and supernatural beings and forces
  17. Taboo
    Prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
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Chapter 9
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