Anatomy and Physiology
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Anatomy and Physiology
Central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord collectively
Major function of neuron?
transmit nerve impulses from one part of the body to another
Sensory (afferent) neuron
neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery
Motor (efferent) neuron
neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands
collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons
specialized supporting cells in the CNS (nerve glue)
chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors
peripheral nervous system
ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
junction or point of close contact between neurons
impulse generator and transmitter
region of the cell body from which the axon originates
receptive region of a neuron
insulates the nerve fibers
may be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron
neuronal cell body
site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area
essentially rough ER, important metabolically
What substance is found in synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal?
The glial cell that makes myelin in the CNS is?
When the inside of the cell membrane becomes more positive it is said to be?
hyperpolarization (away from zero)
Which nervous system division deals with the "Fight and Flight" response?
What is it called when the stimulus jumps from node to node?
What type of neuron do we find in the retina, olfactory epithelium and the ear?
What two ions are used to determine the change in membrane charge?
Na and K
What autoimmune disease causes a shunting or short-circuiting of the neurons?
A substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is?
The part of a neuron that normally receives stimuli is called?
A neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitter over and over is a?
Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?
The primary auditory cortex is found in the?
The fissure seperating the cerebral hemispheres is the?
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called?
The brain stem consists of the?
midbrain, medulla, and pons
Functions of the nervous system?
Sensory input, integration, motor output
What does the white matter consist of?
dense collections of myelinated fibers
What does the gray matter consist of?
mostly neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
Two main types of ion channels?
Leakage (nongated) channels- always open
Gated channels (3 types)
3 types of gated channels?
chemically- open with binding of specific neurotransmitter
voltage- open and close in response to changes in membrane potential
mechanically- open and close in response to physical deformation of receptors
What is the resting membrane potential of a resting cell?
reduction in membrane potential toward zero
Difference between graded and action potentials along membrane?
graded- incoming short-distance signals
action- long-distance signals of axons
The steps involved in action potential?
junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron: to another neuron, or to an effector cell