Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology
2011-12-12 19:10:06

chapter 11
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  1. Central nervous system (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord collectively
  2. Major function of neuron?
    transmit nerve impulses from one part of the body to another
  3. Sensory (afferent) neuron
    neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery
  4. Motor (efferent) neuron
    neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands
  5. ganglion
    collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
  6. interneuron
    neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons
  7. neuroglia
    specialized supporting cells in the CNS (nerve glue)
  8. neurotransmitters
    chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors
  9. peripheral nervous system
    ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
  10. synapse
    junction or point of close contact between neurons
  11. axon
    impulse generator and transmitter
  12. axon terminal
    secretes neurotransmitters
  13. axon hillock
    region of the cell body from which the axon originates
  14. dendrite
    receptive region of a neuron
  15. myelin sheath
    insulates the nerve fibers
  16. neurofibril
    may be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron
  17. neuronal cell body
    site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area
  18. Nissl bodies
    essentially rough ER, important metabolically
  19. What substance is found in synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal?
  20. The glial cell that makes myelin in the CNS is?
  21. When the inside of the cell membrane becomes more positive it is said to be?
    hyperpolarization (away from zero)
  22. Which nervous system division deals with the "Fight and Flight" response?
  23. What is it called when the stimulus jumps from node to node?
    saltatory conduction
  24. What type of neuron do we find in the retina, olfactory epithelium and the ear?
  25. What two ions are used to determine the change in membrane charge?
    Na and K
  26. What autoimmune disease causes a shunting or short-circuiting of the neurons?
    multiple sclerosis
  27. A substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is?
  28. The part of a neuron that normally receives stimuli is called?
  29. A neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitter over and over is a?
    repetitive circuit
  30. Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?
  31. The primary auditory cortex is found in the?
    temporal cortex
  32. The fissure seperating the cerebral hemispheres is the?
    longitudinal fissure
  33. A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called?
  34. The brain stem consists of the?
    midbrain, medulla, and pons
  35. Functions of the nervous system?
    Sensory input, integration, motor output
  36. What does the white matter consist of?
    dense collections of myelinated fibers
  37. What does the gray matter consist of?
    mostly neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
  38. Two main types of ion channels?
    • Leakage (nongated) channels- always open
    • Gated channels (3 types)
  39. 3 types of gated channels?
    • chemically- open with binding of specific neurotransmitter
    • voltage- open and close in response to changes in membrane potential
    • mechanically- open and close in response to physical deformation of receptors
  40. What is the resting membrane potential of a resting cell?
    -70 mV
  41. depolarization
    reduction in membrane potential toward zero
  42. Difference between graded and action potentials along membrane?
    • graded- incoming short-distance signals
    • action- long-distance signals of axons
  43. The steps involved in action potential?
    • resting state
    • depolarization
    • repolarization
    • hyperpolarization
  44. the synapse
    junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron: to another neuron, or to an effector cell