Chapter 9

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Author:
isabel
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123183
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Chapter 9
Updated:
2011-12-12 19:11:58
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Biology Honors
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The Fundamentals of Genetics
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  1. Genetics
    The study of heredity
  2. Heredity
    The transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
  3. Trait
    Genetically determined varient of characteristics
  4. Pollination
    occurs when pollen grains produced in the male reproductive parts (anthers) are transferred to the female reproductive parts (stigma)
  5. Self-pollination
    Between the flowers of the same plant
  6. Cross-pollination
    Between flowers of two plants
  7. True-breeding
    Organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and will always produce the same phenotype
  8. P generation
    the parental generation
  9. F1 generation
    the offspring of the P generation
  10. F2 generation
    Second filial generation
  11. Allele
    two or more alternate forms of genes
  12. Dominant factor
    the allele that is fully expressed
  13. recessive factor
    the factor with no observable effect on the phenotype
  14. Law of Segregation
    States that a pair of factors is segregated or seperated during the formation of gametes
  15. Law of Independent Assortment
    States that the factors seperated independently from one another during the formation of gamets
  16. Molecular genetics
    the study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes
  17. Genotype
    • An organism's genetic makeup
    • consists of alleles inherited from parents
  18. phenotype
    • An organism's appearance
    • doesn't always indicate genotype
    • can be affected by certain enviromental factors
  19. Homozygous
    • When both alleles of a pair alike
    • can be hozygous dominant or homozygous recessive
  20. Hetrozygous
    When both alleles are different
  21. Probability
    • the likelihood of a specific event occuring
    • often expressed as a decimal, ratio, fraction or percent
  22. Monohybrid cross
    a cross of one characteristics
  23. Punnet square
    a diagram used to predict the probability of inherited trait in the offspring
  24. Genotype ratio
    Ratio of genotype that appear in an offspring
  25. phenotype ratio
    The ratio of the offspring's phenotype
  26. testcross
    the crossing of individual unknown genotype with homozygous recessive individual to determine unknown genotype
  27. Complete dominance
    one allele that is completely dominant over another
  28. incomplete dominance
    when the phenotype of a hetrozygote is indeterimed; the dominant trait is unable to express fully
  29. Comdominance
    When both alleles for a gene is expressed through a hetrozygous offspring
  30. dihybrid cross
    when two characteristics are crossed

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