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2011-12-12 19:00:57
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Astro 10 Final
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  1. If you send a beam of light into space, then what is a
    light–year?
    d.the distance the light would go in a year
  2. If a star is 30 light–years away from you on the
    Earth, then what is true when you look at the star?
    you see it as it really was 30 years ago
  3. What equals a light–year?
    6 trillion miles
  4. What is the name for an imaginary picture made by
    connecting stars with straight lines?
    constellation figure
  5. What is a part of a constellation figure where the part
    all by itself looks like something?
    asterism
  6. What is an area of the sky?
    equinotical colure
  7. "Constellation region" relates to "constellation figure" in the same way that "California" relates to what?
    Bay Area
  8. If a constellation figure has 10 stars, then how many
    stars could its asterism have?
    5 stars
  9. A constellation figure made of stars in the shape of a
    square would have to be called what?
    it could be called anything
  10. A constellation called “the diamond” must have stars arranged in what shape?
    they could be in any arrangement
  11. What would be true about a constellation named the
    “half–man–half–horse”?
    it was invented thousands of years ago
  12. What would be true about a constellation named the
    “microscope”?
    it was invented in the scientific era
  13. Suppose you draw a person on the Earth with the directions to the constellations as shown.

    
    Saiph

  14. In 6 hours (from the situation shown), will Enif will be visible for the person?
    yes
  15. Here is a time lapse photo of stars at night. How many
    hours did the time lapse take?

  16. 12 hours
  17. 
    
    Where will the Earth be in 9 months?
    perihelion
  18. The changing seasons are caused by what?
    changing tilt of the north pole relative to the Sun
  19. The changing seasons are not caused by what?
    The changing distance of the Earth from the Sun


  20. In the above drawing of the Moon’s orbit, if the Moon
    starts at the position shown, then how long does it take the Moon to reach perigee?
    three weeks


  21. If the Moon starts at the position shown in the drawing
    above, then how does the Moon’s apparent size in the sky change over the course of three weeks, as we see it?
  22. decreases for 1 week, then increases for 2 weeks
  23. What describes the Moon that we see in the sky from the
    Earth?
    that hemisphere varies in how much it is lit
  24. What describes the terminator of a crescent Moon?
    boundary on the Moon between day and night

  25. “B” is pointing at what part of the Moon’s phase?
    terminator
  26. mostly lit


  27. Which star in this picture could not really be seen where it is shown? The spots are background stars. They are far away in the background much farther away than the Moon is.
    star C
  28. What describes the scientific process?
    cyclic
  29. Suppose a geologist gathers a lot of data about motor
    oil and pesticides in ground water. Assume that the geologist makes 1,000 measurements of motor oil and pesticides on all sides of a landfill.







    After the geologist gathers the data, what step of the
    scientific process is the geologist doing in this step?
    classification
  30. Which step of the scientific process is where the
    geologist says, “All the downhill ground water samples,
    essentially, contain motor oil and pesticides.”
    generalization, keyword: all
  31. Which step of the scientific process is where the
    geologist says, “I guess that this is because people throw their old motor oil and pesticide containers in the land fill.”
    explanation, keyword: guess
  32. Which step of the scientific process is where the
    geologist says, “We could look for motor oil and pesticide
    containers in the land fill.”
    proposition, keyword: we could look
  33. Suppose you give the reason for long, narrow clouds as,
    “This is because the sky god is playing with the clouds and stretching them out.” Why is this statement not acceptable as a scientific explanation?
    it does not use natural causes, it is supernatural
  34. Suppose you give the reason for long, narrow clouds as,
    “This is because there was an earthquake in Malaysia, which caused a volcano to emit a lot of hot gasses, which heated the air, which caused the air to rise, which decreased the air’s temperature, which decreased the water vapor in the air, which created an imbalance in water vapor in the air world wide, which caused clouds to form rapidly in the direction toward the volcano, which made the clouds long and narrow.” Why is this statement not acceptable as a scientific explanation?
  35. it is not simple


  36. What motion does the planet move through between Feb. 14 and Apr. 11.?
    direct motion


  37. What motion does the planet move through between Apr. 11 and May 9?
    retrograde motion
  38. Whose explanation of planet motion is based on invisible
    wheels called deferents and epicycles?
    Ptolemy
  39. Who believed in the geocentric explanation for planet
    motion?
    Ptolemy
  40. Who believed the heliocentric explanation for planet
    motion?
    Copernicus
  41. What is a feature in Copernicus’ explanation for
    planet motion?
  42. Earth orbits the Sun just like any other planet
  43. If you make a light wave longer or shorter in length,
    from left to right, then what property of the light do you change?
    color


  44. Suppose you start with a bright, green light wave and
    you make it taller in height and shorter in length. The light becomes
    what?
    brighter blue
  45. Suppose you start with a bright, green light wave and
    you make it taller in height and shorter in length. The light becomes what?
  46. ultraviolet light wave becomes longer in length
  47. Suppose argon, barium, cesium, dubnium, and europium
    have the following line spectra. Use these reference spectra to answer question 42.

    argon and cesium
  48. What does the word “refract” mean?
    to bend
  49. In a refracting telescope, the light from a distant
    object goes through which lens first?
    objective lens
  50. In a refracting telescope, which lens magnifies the
    image that was made by the first lens?
    eyepiece
  51. If a telescope lens has bubbles in it, then what problem
    does the telescope have?
    unwanted refraction
  52. If a telescope lens has surfaces that not precisely the
    correct shape, then what problem does the telescope have?
    spherical abberation
  53. The ability to make a big image is a telescope’s what?
    magnifying power
  54. The ability to make a bright image is a telescope’s
    what?
    light-gathering power
  55. The picture on the right shows the view of an asteroid
    through a telescope which has more of which power?
    light–gathering power
  56. With regard to size, “planet” relates to “planetoid”
    the same way that “Siberian tiger” relates to what?
    kitty
  57. With regard to orbit, “Sun” relates to “planet” the same way that “Earth” relates to what?
    Earth's Moon


  58. Where on the Venn diagram would a large, ice moon be
    placed? The placement has to encompass all of the given description of the moon.
    space U


  59. Where on the diagram would a rock moonlet be placed? The placement has to encompass all of the given description of the moonlet.
    space W


  60. Suppose you have to place the four objects planet,
    planetoid, moon, and moonlet into the correct spaces on the table. Where on the table would you place a planet?
    space Z


  61. Suppose you have to place the four objects planet,
    planetoid, moon, and moonlet into the correct spaces on the table. Where on the table would you place a moonlet?
    space W
  62. Which of these phrases is really incorrect?

    A.the heat of the Sun
    B.the coldness of a comet
    C.the hardness of an asteroid
    D.the perfect vacuum of space
    D.the perfect vacuum of space
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. What fills the space among the planets?
    hydrogen gas
  64. In the above diagram, the space probe goes past the
    planets in what order?
    Earth, Venus, Mercury, Mars
  65. What describes Mars?
    the color of blood
  66. What describes Neptune?
    the color of the ocean
  67. Which planet’s temperature is the most like a furnace?
    Think carefully about the planet properties.
    Venus
  68. In terms of size, what planet is the most like a whale?
    Jupiter


  69. What are “Objects 2” in the diagram above?
    dust, snowflakes

  70. What did the condensation step do?
  71. used atoms to build objects 2

  72. What was the name of “Objects 4” in the diagram
    above?
  73. protoplanets
  74. Some of the “Objects 2” are leftover in the Solar System today. Today we call them what?
  75. interplanetary dust
  76. What did accretion build?
  77. planet–sized bodies
  78. Astronomers think that half of all stars have what?
  79. planets orbiting them
  80. According to astronomers, if you can see 200 stars in
    the nighttime sky, then how many of those stars have planets, even if the planets have not been discovered yet?
    100 of them
  81. 

    Does this star have a planet?
    yes


  82. What is the orbital period of this star’s planet?
  83. 18 days


  84. Between July 2 and August 16, how many times does the
    planet orbit the star?
  85. 2 1/2 times
  86. 

    What can you say about this star?
  87. it has a planet orbiting around it


  88. What can you say about the star and its planet?
  89. star is three times the size of the planet
  90. (NOTE: “ly” is a distance unit) Would the parallax
    method work best for a star 40 ly away or a star 400 ly away?
    40 ly
  91. Using the parallax method would involve observing a star
    in April and then in what month?
    six months later, is October

  92. List the stars in the table in order of increasing
    distance, starting with the closest.
  93. D, B, C, A

  94. List the stars in order of increasing apparent
    brightness, from dimmest to brightest.
  95. D, A, C, E, B

  96. List the stars in order of increasing actual brightness,
    from dimmest to brightest.
  97. B, D, A, E, C

  98. Which star on the table is actually as bright as it
    appears?
    star E
  99. 
    Look at the following line spectra for Star M and Star
    N. How do Stars M and N compare?
  100. same temperature, different sizes

  101. Between Star M and Star N, which star is bigger?
  102. Star N is bigger
  103. To an astronomer, what is an ambiguous question?
  104. What is the brightness of the North Star?
  105. A galaxy is made of stars the same way that the Universe is made of what?
  106. Galaxies
  107. “Beach” relates to “sand grains” the same way that “galaxy” relates to what?
  108. Stars
  109. 
    Where on the table would an E7 galaxy be placed?
  110. space d


  111. Where on the table would an Sa galaxy be placed?
  112. space a
  113. 

    Where on the Venn diagram would a Sa galaxy be placed?
  114. space T

  115. Where on the Venn diagram would a SBc galaxy be placed?
  116. space Z
  117. Sa
  118. What galaxy has loosely–wound arms and no bar
    through the middle?
    Sc
  119. If a light wave is normally 5,000 A long, but it is stretched to 8,000 A, then what is the redshift? (“A” is the unit of redshift.)
    3,000 A
  120. 
    Which galaxy on the table has the fastest speed?
    Galaxy B


  121. Which galaxy in the table is the farthest?
  122. Galaxy C
  123. What is the name for the beginning of the Universe?
  124. Big Bang
  125. What accelerates the expansion of the Universe?
  126. dark energy
  127. What tries to slow the expansion of the Universe?
  128. gravity
  129. What does it mean to say that the Universe is expanding?
  130. galaxies are getting farther away
  131. The Big Bang happened how many years ago?
  132. 13.7 billion years

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