Final Fund Nat Med

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  1. Which technique is most widely taught. School of thought is not with a philosophical underpinning. The biomechanical techniques that are used are good "sound" adjustments.
    Diversified Technique
  2. Technically, this technique is not a "chiropractic technique", b.c. it has nothing to do with altering the flow of the innate at the spine.
    Extremity adjusting
  3. Who popularized activator techniques (instrument that was devised from a dental tool)
    Arlan Fuhr
  4. Who popularized the leg length check, leg length analysis?
    Ahrlan Fuhr
  5. What might be a good technique for older patients, newborn infant, etc., because its a low impact?
    The activator technique
  6. Whose philosophy was that vertebral subluxation was the vertebral body slipping from posterior to anterior, so all good adjustments were posterior to anterior.
    Dr. Clarence Gonstead
  7. Who popularized seated cervical manipulations?
    Dr. Clarence Gonstead
  8. Who popularized spinography, measurements of varying angles on a weight bearing on x-ray
    Dr. Gonstead
  9. Who invented the special table which utilizes the flexion distraction technique (later termed "flexion decompression technique"). The table can move each body part into all of its cardinal ranges of motion.
    James Cox
  10. Which technique is good for "hot" (problematic, painful) low backs/necks. Popular with doctors who are damaged, small, b.c. it is a low force technique and does not require a lot of physical strength.
    Cox flexion/distraction
  11. Purists would say this particular technique is a MOBILIZATION, rather than an adjustmentIt uses low speed, medium amplitude adjustment.
    Cox flexion distraction technique
  12. Who invented the technique using a drop table, sections that fall about an inch. Adjustment is done when "bottom out" on the table. It does not cavitate the joint
    Clay Thompson
  13. Who invented the Sacral Occipital Technique. Said a subluxation causes dural torque. It twists the dura and it will cause an impedence in the flow of cerbral spinal fluid
    Major Dejarnette
  14. Who used wedges under the patient, sacral or pelvic blocks, that would allow the patient's body weight to twist their pelvis? Not a manipulation technique.
    Major Dejarnette
  15. Who invented Applied Kineseology which used idea of Muscle Test Organ Relationship. Postulated "Therapy Localization", if Dr. touched a dysfunctional part of the body, the muscle strength would go weak or strong. It is a diagnostic algorythm
    George Goodheart
  16. Who introduced Trigger Point work, brought to chiropractic. Radical idea that the subluxation was not the cause of the problem, it was a symptom, and the cause was muscular dysfunction.
  17. Which technique believes if the bones of the skull become fixed, the cerebral spinal fluid does not circulate properly.
    Cranial Technique
  18. Who invented the Hole In One Technique-Adjust the Atlas, all vertebral below it will "follow" and adjust (like a chain reaction).
    BJ Palmer
  19. Logan-Basic Techique, use the sacral tuberous ligament, need to adjust the sacrum
  20. What technique has the belief to ignore musculoskeletal problems, adjust the spine at the level where the spinal nerves come out for the organ you want to effect
    Meric System
  21. Using a wobble board is in example of what stage of rehabilitation? Or, using visual, proprioceptive information that informs the brain what the body is doing.
    Feedback Stage
  22. Actually engaging in a gross motor activity, using the motor cortex to do this, is what stage of rehabilitation?
    Effector Stage
  23. Identifying and targeting and thinking about the part of the body, and visualizing what it needs to do, how it needs to move, is what stage of rehabilitation?
    Executive Stage
  24. Excercising by pushing against an immovable object is an example of what kind of muscle use? Or, using force without changing the length of the muscle
  25. Using the same SPEED while moving but varying the amount of force that is used for rehabilitative exercise is what term?
  26. Using the same amount of weight to lift and work with refers to what?
  27. Using the muscle, contracting it and SHORTENING it is what kind of movement
  28. Using the muscle, contracting it but ELONGATING it is what kind of muscle movement.
  29. Which type of movement makes your muscle work the hardest? Turns on the most protein synthesis
  30. Using a force that the muscle can not control, handle, is what type of movement? The muscle is overpowered.
  31. This types of proprioception is more evident with fine motor skills, such as writing or typing or texting are examples of what type of what type of proprioception? Central or Peripheral proprioception deficit
    Peripheral proprioception
  32. How do you rehabilitate a person with Peripheral Proprioceptive deficit?
    • Take away one of their sensory inputs
    • Vision, proprioception, or vestibular. So take away vision (can't take away vestibular proprioception)
  33. What are examples of exteroreceptors?
    • Vision
    • Vestibular
  34. What, and where is the Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) and what type of receptor is it?
    GTO is an (internal) proprioceptor

    It senses the strength, force of the muscle contraction

    Found in the tendon
  35. What is a spindle, where is it found, and what type of receptor is it?
    Spindle is a proprioceptive receptor that senses the length of the muscle contraction.

    Found in the muscle
  36. What is an example of proprioception found in the joints?
    Joint capsule nerve endings tell the body the Position of the joint
  37. What are externoreceptors, and what is the difference between internoreceptors?
    • Externoreceptors only tell us what is going on outside of our body. Such as vision and vestibular receptors
    • Vision gives us information about our body's orientation in the world as well
  38. Chiropractic manipulation, Cox flexion table, getting a massage for example, are what type of rehabilitation in terms of active/passive and static/dynamic?

    Moving the patient, but the patient is not participating in it. Professional is doing all the motion for the patient
    Passive dynamic
  39. An isometric exercise is which: active/passive and static/dynamic
    Active static
  40. Anything where the patient is moving, co-contracting, such as running, aeorobics, tennis are:

    Active dynamic
  41. Putting patient in a position and having them hold it is, for example in a stretch position

    Passive static
  42. What does amplitude modulation (AM) mean?
    The more it is stimulated, the more it depolarizes.
  43. What does frequency modulated (FM) mean?
    The more a second order neuron is stimulated, the FASTER it depolarizes.

  44. What are characteristics of Group I Joint Receptors (Afferents)?
    Type of information?
    Presence/absence of mylenation?
    What is usually in action, firing?
    Pain perception?
    • Fast conduction
    • Proprioceptive
    • Typically used for muscle stretch; therefore using muscle spindles.
    • Are mylenated
    • Muscle spindles, tell length of stretch
    • Doesn't normally signal pain
  45. What are characteristics of Group II Joint /Afferents?
    Type of information?
    Presence/absence of mylenation?
    What is usually in action, firing?
    Pain perception?
    • - A little slower proprioception
    • - Mechanoreceptors
    • -Typically associated with muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs and encapsulated, corpuscular receptors (these are nerves that are wrapped in connective tissue. They are pressure sensitive)
    • -" Fat, fast" and myelanated but not as fast as Group I
    • - Not typically "translating" pain
  46. How can information that could potentially cause pain be turned off?
    If sitting in same position for a long time, the brain will want to tell you to move position, because after 15-20 minutes, tissues have stretched beyond threshold; however, if the cortex is actively engaged, this "descending pathway" will inhibit, cancel out the message that the ascending (muscle tissue to brain pathway of "pain") is trying to send.
  47. What are characteristics of Group III Joint Receptors?

    Type of information?
    Presence/absence of mylenation?
    What is usually in action, firing?
    Pain perception?
    • -Mechanoreceptors with the potential of nociception (pain sensing)
    • - Pretty slow
    • - Mylenated
  48. What are characteristics of Group IV Joint receptors/Afferents?
    Experience of pain?
    Presence of signal?
    • Inflammation Detectors
    • "Silent Nociceptors": Silent unless inflamed, then they become mechanoreceptive and give us pain
    • Once they start firing, they never stop, pain will always be in awareness
  49. What percent of joint innervation is nocicepton versus proprioception?
  50. What are the three ways that proprioception interferes with signals received by nociceptors (thus interfering with pain perception)?
    • 1) When proprioceptors are firing, they cause the inter-neurons to be more polarized, they are less likely to fire (when stimulated by the nociceptors)
    • (Nociceptors signal must go through inter-neurons first before go to brain)
    • 2)Proprioceptors branch a signal to the nociceptor which also inhibits its action
    • 3) The impulses that the proprioceptor is sending to the cortex and cerebellum, creating information which is "descending inhibitory signals" that inhibit the nociceptors transmission of pain signals
  51. How do nociceptors and proprioception work together in the experience of pain?
    Nociceptors are inhibited in three ways by proprioceptors. These mechanisms prevent nociceptor experience and therefore the experience of pain.
  52. How can you get excessive Lower Motor Neuron firing?
    If you damage the Upper Motor Neurons, (than the Lower Motor Neurons "go crazy")
  53. What effect do Upper Motor Neurons have on Lower Motor neurons
    They have a dampening effect on Lower Motor neurons
  54. What is premise of Chiropractic Neurodystrophic Theory?
    Chiropractic adjustment is good because it reduces the organisms neural stress, which makes it better able to ADAPT; and therefore the organism gets sick less often.
  55. What is idea behind Somato-autonomic Reflex Theory?
    The nervous system acts as a 2-way street; so if have a problem with your gall bladder, at the other "end" of this organ, you will also have problems at the T7-T9 area of spine

    Has somato-visceral reflexes
  56. Who was DD Palmer's first patient?
    What was his complaints?
    Harvey Lillard

  57. What is the role of inter-neurons, thalmus and cortex in transmission of pain (nociceptor) signals?
    Pathway is nociceptor stimulates the inter-neuron's first (they are "gatekeepers going north" per Bifulco) to the thalmus, which fires up the cortex, and gives our awareness of pain.

    There must be adequate amount of stimulation in order
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Final Fund Nat Med
Final Bifulco's part
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