Biology Semester 1 Lesson 2 Study Guide

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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 2 Study Guide
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2011-12-12 20:20:16
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Biology Semester Lesson Study Guide
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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 2 Study Guide
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  1. The atomic number of carbon is 6. Therfore, the number of protons in a carbon atom equals _?_.
    A. 3
    B. 4
    C. 7
    D. 6
    D. 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The maximum number of electrons that can be held in an atom's second energy level is _?_.
    A. 4
    B. 2
    C. 8
    D. 6
    C. 8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The state of matter in which particles move most rapidly is _?_.
    A. Solid
    B. Gas
    C. Liquid
    D. Molecule
    B. Gas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. In chemical reactions, the number of each kind of atom in the reactants is _?_.
    A. The same as in the products
    B. More than in the products
    C. More if the reaction is exergonic
    D. Less than in the products
    A. The same as in the products
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. A solution with a pH of 7 is _?_.
    A. Ionic
    B. Acidic
    C. Alkaline
    D. Neutral
    D. Neutral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. When a glass is filled to the brim with water, the water appears to buldge from the sides of the glass due to _?_.
    A. Adhesion
    B. Surface tension
    C. Cohesion
    D. Capillarity
    B. Surface tension
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. When liquid water is heated, most of the initial energy that the water absorbs is used to _?_.
    A. Break ionic bonds
    B. Break hydrogen bonds
    C. Break covalent bonds
    D. Raise the temperature of the water
    B. Break hydrogen bonds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Organic compounds contain _?_.
    A. Only carbon
    B. Primarily carbon
    C. No carbon
    D. Only carbon and hydrogen
    B. Primarily carbon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. A covalent bond that is formed when two atoms share two pairs of electrons is called a _?_.
    A. Single bond
    B. Double bond
    C. Hydrogen bond
    D. Ionic bond
    B. Double bond
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Glycogen, starch, and cellulose are examples of _?_.
    A. Dissacharides
    B. Polysaccharides
    C. Monosaccharides
    D. Trisaccharides
    B. Polysaccharides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The primary function of nucleic acids is _?_.
    A. To store and transport important information in a cell
    B. Storing energy
    C. Catalyzing chemical reactions
    D. To form a barrier between the inside and outside of a cell
    A. To store and transport important information in a cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In a cell, the function of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is to _?_.
    A. Store a large amount of energy for cell processes
    B. Break down polymers
    C. Give strength and rigidity to a cell
    D. Catalyze chemical reactions
    A. Store a large amount of energy for cell processes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Distinguish between mass and weight.
    Mass is the quantity of matter an object has, and weight is the force produced by gravity acting on mass.
  14. Describe how the particles in an atom are arranged.
    The properties of different kinds of atoms determine the structure and properties of the matter they compose.
  15. Describe, in detail, the structure of amino acids. How are amino acids related to proteins.
    Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Amino acids contain a central carbon that are bonded to four other atoms, a single hydrogen atom, carboxyl group, bonds secondly. An amino group bonds third, side chain called r group at fourth site.
  16. Distinguish between covalent and ionic bonds.
    An ionic bond is when an ion of opposite charges attracts, covalent bonds happens when 2 atoms share a pair or more of electrons.
  17. Why is ATP referred to as the " energy currency " in living things?
    ATP is referred to as energy currecy because the cell needs a constant supply of energy, energy that is stored throughout the overall structure of the cell.
  18. Define ACTIVE SITE
    The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.
  19. Define CATALYST
    A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction, without being consumed or changed significantly.
  20. Define ENZYME
    A type of protein or RN molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed.
  21. Define HYDROGEN BOND
    The intermolecular force occuring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electro negative atom of one molecule is attached to two unshared electrons of another molecule.
  22. Define MACROMOLECULE
    A very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, compound of hundreds of thousands of atoms.
  23. Define MONOMER
    A simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer.
  24. Define OXIDATION REACTION
    A chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons such that the reactant becomes more positive in charge.
  25. Define POLAR
    Describes a molecule with opposite charges on opposite ends.
  26. Define POLYMER
    A larger molecule that is formed by more than 5 monomers of small units.
  27. Define REDUCTION REACTION
    A chemical reaction in which electrons are organized either by the removal of of oxygen, the addition of hydrogen or the addition of electrons.
  28. Define SUBSTRATE
    A part substance or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
  29. Composed entirely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    Carbohydrates
  30. Contain one or more polypeptides
    Proteins
  31. Contain twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms
    Carbohydrates
  32. DNA
    Nucleic acid
  33. Glycogen
    Carbohydrates
  34. Phospholipids
    Lipids
  35. Polymers of amino acids
    Proteins
  36. Polymers of nucleotides
    Nucleic acid
  37. RNA
    Nucleic acid
  38. Starch
    Carbohydrates
  39. Steroids
    Lipids
  40. Store and transfer important cell information
    Nucleic acid
  41. Triglycerides
    Lipids
  42. Unbranched carbon chains of fatty acids
    Lipids
  43. Waxes
    Lipids
  44. Which term does not belong in the group? Why?

    Liquid, compound, gas, sold
    Compound

    A compound does not belong in the 3 stages of matter.
  45. Which term does not belong in the group? Why?

    Solution, solvent, solute, atom
    Atom

    Atom does not belong because it can not be dissolved in a liquid.
  46. Which term does not belong in the group? Why?

    acid, alkaline, enzyme, pH scale
    Enzyme

    Enzyme is not related to pH scale
  47. Which term does not belong in the group? Why?

    Polysaccharide, dipeptide, monosaccharide, disaccharide
    Dipeptide

    A dipeptide is not a carbohydrate.
  48. What numbers does the pH scale reach to?
    0 - 14 the higher the less acidic, the lower the more acidic.
  49. Define ACID
    Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when disolved in water.
  50. Define ACTIVATION ENERGY
    The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
  51. Define ADHESION
    The attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with eachother.
  52. Define BASE
    Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when disolved in water.
  53. Define BUFFER
    A solution made from a week acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it.
  54. Define CAPILLARITY
    The attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liquid in small tubes.
  55. Define CHEMICAL REACTION
    The process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.
  56. Define COHESION
    The force that holds molecules of a single material.
  57. Define CONCENTRATION
    The amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or more.
  58. Define FUNCTIONAL GROUP
    The portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the polypeptides of many organic compounds.
  59. Define HYDRONIUM ION
    An ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water.
  60. Define HYDROXIDE ION
    The OH- ion.
  61. Define ORGANIC COMPOUND
    A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonites and oxides.
  62. Define pH SCALE
    A range of values that are used to express acidility or alkalinity of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in adicity: pH of 7 is neutral, pH of less than 7 is acidic, pH of more than 7 is basic.
  63. Define SATURATED SOLUTION
    A solution that can not dissolve any more solute under the given conditions.
  64. Amount of matter in an object
    Mass
  65. Anything that occupies space and has mass
    Matter
  66. Atom that has more or less neutrons than another atom of the same element
    Isotope
  67. Electrically charged particle
    Ion
  68. For the same element, an atom that has a different mass from another atom
    Mass number
  69. Group of atoms held together by chemical forces
    Bond
  70. Neutral atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
    Isotope
  71. Simplest particle of an element
    Molecule
  72. Substance made of atoms of two or more elements
    Compound
  73. Substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
    Element

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