NASM Chapter 2

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NASM Chapter 2
2010-03-29 01:35:58
fitness excercise training health personal trainer

NASM Personal Training Course Chapter 2
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  1. Kinetic Chain
    The combination of interrelation of the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems.
  2. Nervous System
    Large groups of cells that form nerves, which provide a communication network within the body.
  3. Sensory Function
    The abilty of the nervous system to sense changes in either internal or external environments.
  4. Integrative Funtion
    The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
  5. Motor Funtion
    The neuromuscular response to sensory information.
  6. Neuron
    The functional unit of the nervous system.
  7. Sensory (afferent) Neurons
    Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from effector sites TO the brain or spinal cord.
  8. Interneurons
    Neurons that transmit impulses FROM one neuron to another.
  9. Motor (efferent) Neurons
    Neurons that transmit nerve impulses FROM the brain or spinal cord to the effector sites.
  10. Central Nervous System
    Consists of the brain and spinal cord and serves mainly to INTERPRET information.
  11. Peripheral Nervous System
    Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body and serve to RELAY information from bodily organs to the brain and from the brain to bodily organs.
  12. Mechanoreceptors
    Sensory Receptors responsible for sensing distortion in bodily tissues.
  13. Muscle Spindles
    Fibers sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
  14. Golgi Tendon Organs
    Organs sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
  15. Joint Receptors
    Receptors sensitive to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint.
  16. Tendons
    Attach muscles to bone and provide the anchor form which the muscle can exert force and control the bone and joint.
  17. Muscle
    Is tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated to produce motion.
  18. Neurotransmitters
    Are chemical messengers that transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
  19. Muscular System
    Is a series of muscles that the nervous system commands to move the skeletal system.
  20. Sarcomere
    The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction (which consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin).
  21. Neural Activation
    Is the contraction of a muscle generated by the communication between the nervous system and muscular system.
  22. Skeletal System
    The body's frame which is comprised of bones and joints.
  23. Bones
    Hard connective tissues that connect to create a skeletal framework.
  24. Joints
    The movable places where two or more bones meet.
  25. Axial Skeleton
    Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
  26. Appendicular Skeleton
    Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
  27. Depression
    Flattened or indented portion of bone, which can be a muscle attachment site.
  28. Process
    Projection protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
  29. Arthrokinematics
    The movements of the joints.
  30. Synovial Joints
    Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.
  31. Nonsynovial joints
    Joints that DO NOT have a joint cavity, connective tissue or cartilage.
  32. Ligament
    Connective tissue that connects bone to bone.
  33. Characteristics of Muscle Fiber types:
    Type I
    • - Smaller in size
    • - Produces less force
    • - Long-term contractions
    • - Slow to fatigue
  34. Characteristics of Muscle Fiber types:
    Type II
    • - Lower in capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • - Produce more force
    • - Quick to fatigue
    • - Short-term contractions (force and power)