English 102 Final Exam Terms

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  1. Antagonist
    A character or force against which another character struggles.
  2. Catastrophe
    The action at the end of a tragedy that initiates the denouement or falling action of a play.
  3. Catharsis
    The purging of the feelings of pity and fear that, according to Aristotle, occurs in the audience of tragic drama. The audience experiences catharsis at the end of the play, following the catastrophe.
  4. Climax
    The turning point of the action in the plot of a play or story. The climax represents the point of greatest tension in the work.
  5. Comedy
    A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usually for the better. In comedy, things work out happily in the end. Comic drama may be either romantic or satitric.
  6. Comic Relief
    The use of a comic scene to interrupt a succession of intesely tragic dramatic moments. The comedy of scenes offering comic relief typically parallels the trafic action that the scenes interrupt. Comic relief is lacking in Greek tragedy, but occurs regularly in Shakespeare's tragedies.
  7. Conflict
    A struggle between opposing forces in a story or play, usually resolved by the end of the work. The conflict may occur within a character as well as between characters.
  8. Dramatic personae
    Latin for the characters or persons in a play.
  9. Exposition
    The first stage of a fictional or dramatic plot, in which necessary background information is provided.
  10. Falling action
    In the plot of a story or play, the action following the climax of the work that moves it towards its denouement or resolution,
  11. Gesture
    The physical movement of a character during a play. It's used to reveal character, and may include facial expressions as well as movements of other parts of an actor's body.
  12. Pathos
    A quality of a play's action that stimulates the audience to feel pity for a character. Pathos is always an aspect of tragedy, and may be present in comedy as well.
  13. Plot
    The unified structure of incidents in a literary work.
  14. Recognition
    The point at which a character understands his or her situtation as it really is.
  15. Resolution
    The sorting out or unraveling of a pot at the end of a play, novel, or story.
  16. Reversal
    The point at which the action of the plot turns in an unexpected direction for the protagonist
  17. Rising Action
    A set of conflicts and crises that constitute that part of a play's or a story's plot leading up to the climax.
  18. Tragedy
    A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usually for the worse. Catastrophe and suffering awaits many of the characters, especially the hero.
  19. Tragic hero
    A privileged, exalted character of high repute, who, by virtue of a tragic flaw and fate, suffers a fall from glory into suffering.
  20. Allegory
    A symbolic narrative in which the surface details imply a secondary meaning. Allegory often takes the form of a story in which the characters represent moral qualitires.
  21. Characterization
    The means by which writers present and reveal character. Although techniques of characterization are complex, writers typically reveal character through their speech, dress, manner, and actions.
  22. Fable
    A brief story with an explicit moral provided by thr author. Fables typically include animals as characters.
  23. Fiction
    An imagined story, whether in prose, poetry, or drama, or an imagined character.
  24. Flashback
    An interruption of a work's chronology to describe or present an incident that occurred prior to the main time frame of a work's action. Writers use flashbacks to complicate the sense of chronology in the plot of their work and to convey the richness of the experience of human time.
  25. Foreshadowing
    Hints of what is to come in the action of a play or a story.
  26. Imagery
    The pattern of related comparative aspects of language, particularly of images, in a literary work. Imagery of light and darkness pervades James Joyce's "Araby" and "The Boarding House." So, too, does religious imagery.
  27. Irony
    A contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant or between what happens and what is expected to happen in life and in literature.
  28. Novella
    A short novel.
  29. Parable
    A brief story that teaches a lesson often ethical or spiritual.
  30. Point-of-view
    The angle of vision from which a story is narrated.
  31. Narrator
    The voice and implied speaker of a fictional work, to be distinguished from the actual living actor.
  32. Satire
    A literary work that criticizes human misconduct and ridicules vices, stupidities, and follies.
  33. Setting
    The time and place of a literary work that establish its context.
  34. Symbol
    An object or action in a literary work that means more than itself, that stands for something beyond itself.
  35. Tale
    A story that narrates strange happenings in a direct manner, without detailed descriptions of a character.
  36. Theme
    The idea of a literary work abstracted from its details of language, character, and action, and cast in the form of a generalization.
  37. Tone
    The implied attitude of a writer toward the subject and characters of a work.
  38. Foil
    A character who contrasts and parallels the main character in a play or story.
  39. Alliteration
    The repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words.
  40. Ballad
    A narrative poem written in four-line stanzas, characterized by swift action and narrated in a direct style.
  41. Blank verse
    A line of poetry or prose in unrhymed iambic pentameter.
  42. Caesura
    A strong pause within a line of verse.
  43. Dramatic monologue
    A type of poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener.
  44. Elegy
    A lyric poem that laments the dead.
  45. Enjambment
    A run-on line of poetry in which logical and grammatical sense carries over from one line into the next.
  46. Epic
    A long narrative poem that records the adventures of a hero. Epics typically chronicle the origins of a civilization and embody its central values.
  47. Epigram
    A brief witty poem, often satirical.
  48. Free verse
    Poetry without a regular pattern of meter or rhyme.
  49. Lyric poem
    A type of poem characterized by brevity, compression, and the expression of feeling.
  50. Hyperbole
    A figure speech involving exaggeration.
  51. Meter
    The measured pattern of rhythmic accents in poems.
  52. Narrative poem
    A poem that tells a story.
  53. Octave
    An eight-line unit, which may constitute a stanza or a section of a poem, as in the octave of a sonnet.
  54. Onomatopoeia
    The use of words to imitate the sounds they describe. Words such as crack and buzz are onomatopoetic.
  55. Rhyme
    The matching of final vowel or consonant sounds in two or more words.
  56. Sonnet
    A fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter.
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English 102 Final Exam Terms
2011-12-13 01:32:41
english 102

English 102
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