Psych Ch. 9 sect. 2

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  1. Operant conditioning
    • learning if a certain action is reinforced or punished
    • Behavior->+/- reinforcer->changed behavior
  2. Reinforcement
    stimulus/event that follows a response and increases likelihood that the response will be repeated
  3. B. F. Skinner
    • operant conditioning
    • believed behavior is influenced by person's history of rewards/punishments
  4. Positive reinforcer
    Ex-giving a dog a treat
  5. Negative reinforcement
    something unpleasant taken away if animal performs the action
  6. Positive reinforcement
    something wanted that is added after an action
  7. Primary reinforcer
    • stimulus that is naturally rewarding
    • Ex- food, water
  8. Secondary reinforcer
    stimulus like money that becomes reinforcing through its link to a primary reinforcer
  9. Fixed-ratio schedule
    • reinforcement after a fixed # of responses
    • Ex- paid for every 10 pizzas made
  10. Variable-ratio schedule
    • Reinforcement after varying # of responses
    • Ex-playing a slot machine
  11. Fixed-interval schedule
    • reinforcement of 1st response after a fixed amnt of time has passed
    • Ex.s- cramming for exam, picking up check from part time job
  12. Variable-interval schedule
    • reinforcement of first response after varying amnts of time
    • Ex- pop quiz in class
  13. Aversive control
    influencing behavior by means of an unpleasant stimuli
  14. Escape conditioning
    • remove/ terminate an an unpleasant stimulus
    • Ex-hide vegetables and dont eat them
  15. Avoidance conditioning
    • training to withdraw from stimulus before it starts
    • Ex- dont like meat so dont have it for home meals
  16. Punishment
    using aversive stimulus to change behavior
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Psych Ch. 9 sect. 2
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