AP Cp 16 EOC

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AP Cp 16 EOC
2011-12-12 20:51:50
AP Cp 16 EOC

AP Cp 16 EOC
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  1. The autonomic division of the nervous system directs
    processes that maintain homeostasis
  2. The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity and stress is the _____ division
  3. Effects produced by the parasympathetic branc of the autonomic nervous system include
    increased secretion by digestive glands
  4. A progressive disorder characterized by the loss of higher-order cerebral function
    Alzheimer disease
  5. Starting in the spinal cord, trace an impulse through the sympathetic division of the ANS until it reaches a target organ in the abdominopelvic region
    preganglionic neuron T5-L2-collateral ganglia--postganglionic fibers--visceral effector in abdominopelvic cavity
  6. Which four ganglia serve as origins for postganglionic fiber
    • 1) ciliary ganglion
    • 2) pterygopalatine ganglion
    • 3) submandibular ganglion
    • 4) otic ganglion
  7. What are the components of a visceral reflex arc
    include a receptor, a sensory neuron, an interneuron (may or may not be present) and two visceral motor neurons
  8. What cellular mechanisms identified in animal studies are thought to be involved in memory formation and storage
    Increased neurotransmitter release, facilitation of synapses, and the fomration of additional synaptic connections are thought to be involved in memory formation and storage
  9. What physiological activities distinguish non-REM sleep from REM sleep
    During non-REM sleep, the entire body relaxes and activity at the cerebral cortex is at a minimum; heart rate, bp resp rate and energy utilization decline. During REM sleep, active dreaming occurs, accompanied by alterations in blood pressure and resp rates; muscle tone decreases markedly, and response to outside stimuli declines
  10. What anatomical and tunctional changes in the brain are linked to alterations that occur with aging?
    Aging causes a reduction in brain volume and weight, a reduction in the number of neurons, a decrease in blood flow to the brain, changes in synaptic organization, and intracellular and extracellular changes in CNS neurons
  11. All preganglionic autonomic fibers release _____ at their synaptic terminals, and the effects are always
    acetylcholine; excitatory
  12. The neurotrasnmitter al all synapses and neuromuscular or neuroglandular junctions in the parasympathetic division of the ANS is
  13. How does the emergence of sympathetic fibers from the spinal cord differ from the emergence of parasympathetic fibers
    the thoracolumbar area (T1 through L2) of the spinal cord. Parasympathetic fibers emerge from the brain stem and teh sacral region of the spinal cord (craniosacral)
  14. Which three collateral ganglia serve as origins for ganglionic neurons that innervate organs or tissues in the abdominopelvic region?
    • 1) celiac ganglion
    • 2) superior mesenteric ganglion
    • 3) inferior mesenteric ganglion
  15. What two distinctive results are produced by the stimulation of sympathetic ganglionic neurons
    • 1) release of norepinephrine at specific locations
    • 2) secretion of epinephrine (and modest amounts of norepi) into the blood stream
  16. Which four pairs of cranial nerves are associated with the cranial segment of the PS division of the ANS
    III, VII, IX, X
  17. Which six plexuses in the thoracis and abdominopelvic cavities innervate visceral organs, and what are the effects of sympathetic vs PS stimulation
    • 1) cardiac plexus- S; HR increases P; HR decreases. BP increases (S)
    • 2) pulmonary plexus: respiratory passageways dilate (S) constrict (P)
    • 3) esophageal plexus: Resp rate increases (S)/ decreases (P)
    • 4) celiac plexus: digestion inhibited (S)/ stimulated (P)
    • 5) inferior mesenteric plexus: digestion inhibited (S)/ stimulated (P)
    • 6) hypogastric pleus: defecation inhibited (S)/stimulated (P), unination inhibited (s)/ stimulated (P), sexual organs: stimulation of secretion (s)/ erection (P)
  18. What three characteristics are shared by higher-order functions
    • 1) performed by neurons of the cerebral cortex and involve complex interactions between areas of the cortex between the cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain
    • 2) involve both conscious and unconcious information processing
    • 3) are subject to modification and adjustment over time
  19. Dual innervation refers to situation in which
    vital organs receive instructions from both sympathetic and parasympathetic fiber
  20. Damage to the hippocampus, a component of the limbic system leads to
    a loss of long-term memory
  21. Why does sympathetic function remain intact even when the ventral roots of the cervical spinal nerves are damaged
    The preganglionic fibers innervating the central ganglia originate in the ventral roots of the throacic segments, which are undamaged
  22. During sympathetic stimulation, a person may begin to feel "on edge"; this is the result of
    stimulation of the reticular activating system
  23. Under which of the following circumstances would the diameter of peripheral blood vessels be greatest?
    decreased sympathetic stimulation
  24. A possible side effect of a drug used to open airways of someone suffering from an asthma attack is
    increased blood pressure
  25. What physiological effects would hearing glass break at night probably produce and what would be their cause
    Due to stimulation division, you would experience increased respirtatory rate, increased peripheral vasoconstriction and elevation of blood pressure, increased heart rate and force of contraction, and increased rate of glucose release into the bloodstream
  26. Why is autonomic tone a significant part of ANS function
    If autonomic motor neurons maintain a backgroudn level of activity at all times, they can etiher increase or decrease their activity, providing a greater range of control options
  27. Nicotine stimulates cholinergic receptors of the autonomic nervous system. Based on this information, how would cigarette smoking affect the CV system?
    Cholineric receptors are found in all ganglia of the ANS, so nicotine would stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic responses in CV tissues. Although increased sympathetic stimulation increases heart rate and force of contration, increased parasympathetic stimulation simultaneously decreases blood flow to the heart muscle. In addition to elevating heart rate and force of contraction, sympathetic stimulation also constricts peripheral VS, all which INCREASE BP
  28. Shock is characterized in part by a decreased return of venous blood to the heart. How could an upsetting situation, such as the sight of a tragic accident, prduce some temporary symptoms of shock
    processed by the higher centers of the CNS and relayed to the hypothalamus. The HT could suppress the vasomotor center of the medulla, resulting in fewer sympathetic impulses to peripheral BV. This would cause a decrease in sympathetic tone in the smooth muscle of the BV resulting in vasodilation. The vasodilation would cause blood to pool lin the limbs decreasing the amount of blood returning to the heart and producing shock.
  29. Allergic reaction to beesting: Acetylcholine or epinephrine; why?
    Epi-it would reduce inflammation and relax the smooth muscle of the airways, amking it easier to breathe
  30. When applied to a muscle plasma membrane, a molecule chemically similar to a neurotransmitter triggers an increase in intracellular calcium ions. Which NT is the molecule mimicking and to which receptors is it binding.
    mimicking NE and binding to alpha-1 receptors