AP cp 17 CP
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sense of smell; involves olfactory receptors in paired olfactory organs responding to chemical stimuli
Trace the olfactory pathway, beginning with the olfactory bulb
axons leaving the olfactory bulb travel along the olfactory tract to the olfactory to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and portions of the limbic system. Prior to that, axons from the olfactory epithelium collect into bundles that reach the olfactory bulb
explain Smell decreasing after being in a room
adaptation has occured, in response to constant stimulation, your receptor neurons have become less active, partially as the result of synaptic fatigue
sense of taste, provided by taste receptors responding to chemical stimuli
If you completely dry the surface of your tongue and the place salt or sugar on it, you can't taste them. Why?
Taste receptors are sensitive only to molecules and ions that are in solution. If you dry the surface, the salt ions have no moisture in which to dissolve, so they will not stimulate the taste receptors
Your grandfather can't understand why foods he used to enjoy don't taste the same anymore. Why?j;
The number of taste buds declines dramatically after 50, and those remaining are not as sensitive. Also, the loss of olfactory receptors contributes to the perception of less flavor in foods
Which layer of the eye would be affected first by inadequate tear production?
conjuctiva, drying of the conjuctiva would produce an irritated, scratchy feeling
When the lens of your eye is more rounded, are you looking at an object that is close to you or far from you?
As sue enters a dimly lit room, most of the available light becomes focused on the fovea of her eye. Will she be able to see very clearly?
Unable to see at all, the fovea contains only cones, which need high-intensity light to be stimulated. The dimly lit room contains light that is too weak to stimulate the cones
How would a blockage of the canal of Schlemm affect your vision
The aqueous humor could not drain, producing glaucoma. Accumulationof this fluid increases the pressure within the eye, distorting soft tissures and interfering with vision. If untreated, the condition would ultimately cause blindness
If you had been born without cones in your eyes, would you be able to see? How?
you would be able to see - so long as you had functioning rods- but black and white only
How could a diet deficient in vitamin A affect vision?
reduce the quantity of retinal (retinene) the body could produce, therby interfering with night vision (which operates at the body's threshold ability to respond to light)
What effect would a decrease in phosphodiesterase activity in photoreceptor cells have on vision?
Vision would be impaired. Decreased phosphodiesterase activity would increase intracellular cGMP levels, which by keepin ggated sodium channels open would decrease the ability of receptor neurons to photons.
If the round window were not able to bulge out with increased pressure in the perilymph, how would the perception of sound be affected?
the perilymph would not be moved by the vibration of the stapes at the oval window, reducing or eliminating the perception of sound.
How would the loss of stereocilia from hair cells of the organ of Corti affect hearing?
would reduce hearing sensitivity and could lead to deafness
Why would blockage of the auditory tube produce an earache?
it would not be possible to equalize the pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. If external pressure then declines, the pressure in the middle ear would be greater than that on the outside, forcing the tympanic membrane outward and producing pain.
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