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What are the main points of "mediactive" regarding production?
- Principles of becoming a trustworthy information creator:
- Be thorough
- Be accurate
- Be civil and fair
- Be transparent
What are the main points of "mediactive" regarding consumption?
- Principles of becoming an active user:
- Be skeptical
- Exercize judgement
- Open your mind
- Keep asking questions
- Learn media techniques
What does "crap detection" refer to?
Being a critical consumer of information in order to be wary of "crap" (Information tainted by ignorance, inept communication, or deliberate deception)
What does C.R.A.P. stand for?
- Currency: How recent is it?
- Reliability: Are there sources available?
- Authority: Who is the author?
- Purpose/Point of view: Is it biased?
What is information literacy?
- Ability to recognize when information is needed
- Ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information
What are the 7 important characteristics that differ between old and new media?
- One-to-many vs. many-to-many
- Expert-generated vs. user-generated
- Perpetual beta
- Hierarchy vs. network
- Data sparse vs. data rich
- Low cost information tools
What is Clay Shirky's view on social media and information access?
- Low-cost information production=distribution of power
- Automation leads to cognitive surplus which can be used to better society
What is Howard Rheingold's view on social media and information access?
- Organization: ICT leads to more efficient organizing
- Computation on information leads to new forms of action
What is Benkler's view of social media and information access?
- Networked information economy frees us from corporate control
- Allows for more individual expression of freedom
How does Schell propose that we engage audiences?
Gamification: using game design techniques and mechanics to solve problems and engage audiences
What is Lanier's view on social media and information access?
- As machines get better, people get fired
- Web 2.0 concentrates wealth
- Not liesure, unemployment
What is Sunstein's view of social media and information access?
- Low cost information is value neutral
- Information cascades: conspiracy theories, false beliefs
- Selective exposure
What is Turkle's view of social media and information literacy?
- We are alone together
- Technology devides our attention, causing us to miss human interaction
- We share only crafted versions of ourselves
- Quantity vs. quality communication
Who are the people with dystopian views?
Who are the people with utopian views?
How is google page rank calculated?
Simple iterative algorithm that counts the number of links that connect to a website. More links=higher rating
What are the three important characteristics of social media?
- User generated content
- Direct user-to-user interaction
- Bundles of applications
What is the difference between the internet and the web?
The internet is the infrastructure and the web is an interface that applies the internet.
What is Web 1.0?
- Static page
- One-flow of information
- Email, websites, intranet
What is Web 2.0?
- Web as a participation platform
- User-generated content
What is AJAX?
- Two-way exchange of information with server in the background
What is centralized routing?
All decisions about the path a packet is going to take are made by a central device (telephone switch or router).
What is the primary benefit of centralized routing?
What are the disadvantages of centralized routing?
- Network efficiency: if the device fails, the network fails
- Scalability: as devices are added, the central routing table can become very large and unmanageable
What is decentralized routing?
- Many devices maintain parts of the routing table
- Routing protocols ensure effective functioning
What is the difference between proprietary and non-proprietary standards?
Proprietary standards work only with a specific vendor's equipment, while open standards are available for public use and may even include design characteristics.
What are the guiding principles of user experience design?
What are the guiding principles for usability?
- Effective to use: doing what it's supposed to
- Efficient to use: supports users in carrying out tasks
- Safe to use
- Having good utility: provides the right kind of functionality
- Easy to learn
- Easy to remember how to use
Who is Ada Lovelace?
Mechanically translated a short written work and is widely regarded as the first programmer.
Who is Alan Turing?
- influential computer scientist who formalized the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine
- code-breaker during WWII
What are the four factors impacting groupware for collaboration?
- Synchronous: same time
- Asynchronous: different time
- Remote: different place
- Co-located: same place
What types of information technology are commonly used in organizations?
- Shared files
- Distance collaboration
What is the 4C approach?
- Approach to Enterprise 2.0:
What is tight coupling?
- Work that strongly depends on the talents of collections of workers
- Frequent, complex communication among group members
- Short feedback loops
- Constant streams of information
What is loose coupling?
- Less complicated and less frequent interactions
- Common ground about the task goal or procedure
- Fewer descrepencies
What is meant by task dependency?
Some tasks depend on more common ground
What are Grudin's 8 challenges in developing groupware?
- Desparity between who does work and who benefits
- Critical mass and prisoner's dilemma problems
- Social, political, and motivational factors
- Exception handling in work groups
- Designing for infrequently used features
- The underestimated difficulty of evaluating groupware
- The breakdown of intuitive decision-making
- Managing acceptance
What does CSCW stand for?
Computer-supported cooperative work
What is the social-technical gap in designing CSCW systems?
- The devide between what we know we must support socially and what we can support socially
- Systems do not allow sufficient nuance
- Systems are not socially flexible
- Systems do not allow sufficient ambiguity
What are the two characteristics of goods?
A public good is:
What are switching costs?
Total cost of moving to a new product that may cause lock-in
What are costs of production of information in regards to information economics?
High fixed costs (sunk costs/expensive to produce) and low marginal costs (cheap to reproduce)
What is information pricing based on? What is it not based on?
Information is priced based on consumer value, not production costs.
What is an experience good?
A good which you have to experience in order to value
What are the characteristics of information as an experience good?
- Information is experienced as it is consumed
- It is difficult to sample information
- Branding and reputation
What are transaction costs?
- Costs incurred in the activity; includes:
- search and information
- policing and enforcement
What is lock-in?
The likelihood of switching products
What is positive feedback?
The more users who join, the more others find it useful
What is meant by network effects?
When your utility for a product depends on how many other people are using it.
What are the types of intellectual property?
- Trade secrets
- Publicity rights
What is a trademark?
A trademark is a symbol or snippet of text used to represent that a company's product or service lasts forever
What are patents?
Patents are the right to exclude others for making/using/selling a product or service for a limited amount of time (20 years)
What are copyrights?
- Copyrights are the right to exclude others from reproducing, preparing derivatives, performing, distributing, or displaying work for a limited amount of time (life of creator +70 years)
- The expression is protected, not the idea itself
What are trade secrets?
Trade secrets represent classified knowledge (for example the KFC recipe)
What are publicity rights?
Publicity rights represent people's right to control commercial use of their identity (name, image, etc.)
What is copyleft?
- Copyleft is a play on the word copyright; uses copyright law to offer the right to distribute copied and modified versions of a work and requiring that the same right be preserved in the modified versions.
- Copyleft is a method for making a work free, and requiring that all modified and extended versions be free as well.
What is meant by fair use?
Fair use permits limited use of copyrighted material without permission of the author (like commentary, criticism, news reporting, teaching, library archiving, research, and scholarship)
What is the creative commons?
The creative commons is a non-profit organization dedicated to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and share.
How do strong and weak ties affect activism online and in the real world?
Weak ties are loose social connections that have the benefit of diverse worldviews and non-redundant information. Strong ties, on the other hand, involve similarities and redundant information/resources. Bridging ties facilitate information diffusion, while strong ties activism doesn't go far.
What are the basic dimensions of an information need?
- Time sensitivity
- Risk of being wrong
- Complexity of components
- Dimensions of "correct" answer
What is the difference between info search and info browse?
Info search is carried out to satisfy a particular info need, while browsing has no accociated goal.
What are the characteristics of a telecom system?
- A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal.
- A transmission medium that carries the signal.
- A receiver that receives the signal and converts it back into useable information.
How does social media differ from mass media?
- In mass media, tools help gatekeepers make one information object to share with a large audience.
- In social media, tools help multiple information creators share information objects with smaller audiences.
What are some types of historical social media and what did they do?
- Usernet: Post articles or news (posts) to newsgroups
- Instant messaging
- IRC (Instant relay chat): File sharing, link sharing, chat
What are the basic steps needed to prepare data for information visualization?
How is power enforced through information?
- Controlling access
- Cultural imperialism
What is privacy?
Privacy is the ability to reveal information about oneself selectively.
What are the basic types of privacy?
What are Lessig's four modalities that constrain different behaviors?
- An analog for architecture
What is crowdsourcing?
The act of sourcing tasks traditionally carried out by specific individuals to a group of people or community through an open call.
What is social capital?
Socail capital describes the ability of individuals or groups to access resources from their social network.
How does technology affect social capital generation?
Technology reduces the transaction costs of maintaining a large network.
What are the characteristics of social media that facilitated the Arab Spring?
- Reduced distribution cost
- Mobile hardware makes everyone a media producer
- Ubiquity of the tool spread ideas
What are two ways in which information is powerful to people?
- It allows you to change
- It affords you the truth
Why is access hard in some parts of the world?
- Hardware is expensive
- Infrastructure doesn't exist/hard to set up
What are protocols?
- Protocols are shared rules for exchanging bits that enable devices and networks to speak to each other.
- Protocols work at all layers of the network.
What is a network?
A collection of transmitters, receivers, and transceivers that communicate with each other.
What is a circuit?
A communication path over an established medium, between two or more points, from end-to-end, between transmitter and receiver.
What is a switch?
A device that establishes, maintains, and changes logical connections over physical circuits.
What is a router?
A device that forwards data packets between computer networks
How can you remember the characteristics of orality?
Additive rather than:
Aggregative rather than:
Situational rather than:
What were IP rights like before 1700?
They didn't exist; they emerged with the rise of Democracy
When exactly did IP law take effect?
US Constitution (1778) Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8
What led to trademarks?
US Constitution Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 (Commerce Clause) gave Congress the right to regulate trade
What led to patents?
The emergence of modern corporations like Bayer, Ivory Soap and Aspirin in 1860's as knowledge became an asset to protect
What led to copyrights?
Huge growth in literature production followed by Pulp paper and Paige compositor in 1880's which made reproduction of print materials cheaper.
What is data in terms of the DIKW model?
Raw observations and measurements
What is information in terms of the DIKW model?
Created by analyzing relationships and connections in the data
What is knowledge in terms of the DIKW model?
Created by using information for action
What is wisdom in terms of the DIKW model?
Created through the use of knowledge
What were the main events that led to IP law as it is today?
- The rise of the University
- Printing Press
- Scientific Revolution
- US Constitution
What were the three major historical milestones in the history of libraries?
Boston Public Library, Dewey, Carnegie