Substance-Related Disorders

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Author:
sstringer
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123280
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Substance-Related Disorders
Updated:
2011-12-12 23:03:35
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Substance related disorders
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Chapter 12, substance-related disorders
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  1. substance abuse
    A pattern of behavior in which people rely on a drug excessively and regularly, bringing damage to their relationships, functionin poorly at work, or putting themselves or others in danger.
  2. substance dependence
    A pattern of behavior in which people organize their lives around a drug, possibly building a tolerance to it, experiencing withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking it, or both. Also called addiction.
  3. tolerance
    The adjustment that the brain and the body make to the regular use of certain drugs so that ever larger doses are needed to achieve the earlier effects.
  4. withdrawal
    Unpleasant, sometimes dangerous reactions that may occur when people who use a drug regularly stop taking or reduce their dosage of the drug.
  5. alcohol
    Any beverage containing ethyl alcohol, including beer, wine, and liquor.
  6. delirium tremens (DTs)
    A dramatic withdrawal reaction experienced by some people who are alcohol-dependent. It consists of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations. Also called alcohol withdrawal delirium.
  7. Korsakoff's syndrome
    An alcohol-realted disorder marked by extreme confusion, memory impairment, and other neurological symptoms.
  8. fetal alcohol syndrome
    A cluster of problems in a child, including low birth weight, irregularities in the head and face, and intellectual deficits, caused by excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy.
  9. sedative-hypnotic drug
    A drug used in low doses to reduce anxiety and in higher doses to help people sleep. Also called anxiolytic drug.
  10. barbiturates
    Addictive sedative-hypnotic drugs that reduce anxiety and help produce sleep.
  11. benzodiazepines
    The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax.
  12. opioid
    Opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin, and codeine.
  13. morphine
    A highly addictive substance made from the sap of the opium poppy.
  14. heroin
    One of the most addictive substances derived from opium.
  15. endorphins
    Neurotransmitters that help relieve pain and reduce emotional tension. They are sometimes referred to as the body's own opioids.
  16. cocaine
    An addictive stimulant obtained from the coca plant. It is the most powerful natural stimulant known.
  17. free-base
    A technique for ingesting cocaine in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame, and inhaled with a pipe.
  18. crack
    A powerful, ready-to-smoke free-base cocaine.
  19. amphetamine
    A stimulant drug that is manufactured in the laboratory.
  20. methamphetamine
    A powerful amphetamine drug that has experienced a surge in popularity in recent years, posing major healtha nd law enforcement problems.
  21. caffeine
    The world's most widely used stimulant, most often consumed in coffee.
  22. hallucinogen
    A substance that causes powerful changes primarly in sensory perception, including strengthening perceptions and producing illusions and hallucinations. Also called psychedelic drug.
  23. LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
    A hallucinogenic drug derived from ergot alkaloids.
  24. cannabis drugs
    Drugs produced from the varieties of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. They cause a mixture of hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects.
  25. marijuana
    One of the cannabis drugs, derived from buds, leaves, and flowering topcs of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa.
  26. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    The main active ingredient of cannabis substances.
  27. cross-tolerance
    Tolerance for a substance on has not taken before as a result of using another substance similar to it.
  28. synergistic effect
    In pharmacology, an increase of effects that occurs when more than one substance is acting on the body at the same time.
  29. polysubstance-related disorder
    A long-term pattern of maladaptive behavior centered on abuse of or dependenc on a combination of drugs.
  30. reward center
    A dopamine-rich pathway in the brain that produces feelings of pleasure when activated.
  31. reward-deficiency syndrome
    A condition, suspected to be present in some individuals, in which the brain's reward center is not readily activated by the usual events in their lives.
  32. aversion therapy
    A treatment in which clients are repeatedly presented with unpleasant stimuli while performing undesirable behaviors such as taking a drug.
  33. covert sensitization
    Like flooding, imagining scenes.
  34. behavioral self-control training (BSCT)
    A cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior and to apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking.
  35. relapse-prevention training
    An approach to treating alcohol abuse that is similar to BSCT and also has clients plan ahead for risky situations and reactions.
  36. detoxification
    Systematic and medically supervised withdrawal from a drug.
  37. antagonist drugs
    Drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug.
  38. methadone maintenance program
    An approach to treating heroin dependence in which clients are given legally and medically supervised doses of a substitute drug, methadone.
  39. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
    A self-help organization that provides support and guidance for persons with alochol abuse or dependence.
  40. residential treatment center
    A place where people formerly dependent on drugs live, work, and socialize in a drug-free environment. Also called a therapeutic community.

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