Bio psyc final: vision and pain

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  1. semicircular canals
    • oriented in perpendicular planes
    • filled with a jellylike substance and lined with hair cells.
  2. somatosensory system
    sensation of the body and its movements is many senses.
  3. pacinian corpuscle
    detects sudden displacements of high frequency vibrations on the skin.
  4. dermatome
    • limited area of the body that gets its own spinal nerve
    • overlaps one third to one half of next dermatome
    • Spinal nerves connect 31 dermatomes to CNS
    • capsaicin
    • chemical found in hot peppers that stimulates pain receptors.
  5. glutamate
    released during mild pain
  6. substance P
    released during strong pain
  7. opioid mechanisms
    systems that respond to opiate drugs and similar chemicals.
  8. periaqueductal gray area
    opiates bind to receptors found here in the midbrain.
  9. endorphins
    contraction of endogenous morphines.
  10. date theory
    spinal cord neurons that receive messages from pain receptors also receive input from touch receptors and from axons descending from the brain.
  11. Vestibular organ is located close to inner ear (cochlea)
    • Monitors:Direction of head tilt; Acceleration of the head
    • Easier to read a sentence while you move your head than if someone else moves the sentence around
    • Movement of head to right -> compensatory eye movement to the left, and vice versa
    • Vestibulo-ocular reflex –
    • connects vestibular organ with muscles of the eye.
    • Vestibular system
    • consists of 2 otolith organs
  12. Otoliths: calcium carbonate particles, lie next to hair cells in a chamber
    • Movement pushes particles against hair cell – excitation
    • Chambers with patches of hair, detect motion in
    • Horizontal – Utricle
    • Vertical – Saccule
  13. Central pathway: action potentials from hair cells travel through 8th cranial nerve to brainstem (pons) and cerebellum
  14. Motion/sea sickness
    Nausea induction: optokinetic drum; environment is moving but you aren’t, throws you off
  15. Ruffini ending
    • Located in both hairy and hairless areas of the sin
    • Responds to stretch of skin, slipping of objects along skin
    • Helps with finger coordination (gripping objects)
  16. Free nerve ending
    • Unmyelinated or thinly myelinated axons
    • Located near base of hairs and in skin
    • Sensations of pain, warmth, cold
    • Can also be stimulated by chemicals
    • Capsaicin (chemical in hot peppers)
    • Menthol/mint
  17. Transduction:
    Conversion of physical or chemical stimuli into bioelectrical signals, by specialized cells or sensitive endings in sense organs: “receptors”
  18. 2 pathways of pain
    • sensory – to thalamus, somatosensory cortex
    • emotional – to medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus
    • law of specific nerve energies
    • impulses in one neuron indicate light, impulses in another indicate sound.
  19. ganglion cells
    • closest to center of eye
    • receive bipolar messages
    • form optic nerve
  20. bipolar cells
    • middle layer of receptor cells
    • receives input from rods and cones
  21. fovea
    tiny area specialized for acute detailed vision.
  22. midget ganglion
    each is small and responds to just a single cone.
  23. rods
    • more numerous than cones
    • for dim light
    • not in color
    • more numerous in periphery or macula
  24. photopigments
    • chemical that releases energy when struck by light.
    • rods and cones contain photopigments.
  25. cones
    • need bright light
    • highest concentration in fovea
    • color vision
    • less numerous than rods
  26. wavelengths we can see
    300-750 nm
  27. trichromatic theory of color vision
    we perceive color through the relative ratio of response by three kinds of cones
  28. opponent process theory of color
    we perceive color in terms of opposites
  29. retinex theory
    • cortex and retina perceive color
    • cortex compares info from various parts of retina to determine the brightness and color for each atrea
    • color vision deficiency
    • complete color blindness is rare
    • some people lack one or two of the types of cones b/c of genetics
  30. lateral geniculate nucleus
    part of the thalamus
  31. receptive field
    part of the visual field that excites or inhibits a cell.
  32. parvocellular neurons
    • small cell bodies and small receptive fields
    • mostly in or near the fovea.
  33. magnocellular neurons
    • larger cell bodies and receptive fields
    • distributed evenly throughout retina.
  34. koniocellular neurons
    • small cell bodies
    • occur throughout retina.
  35. blindsight
    ability to respond to visual info that people report not seeing.
  36. primary visual cortex
    • occipital cortex/ V1
    • damage: no conscious vision, imagery, images in dreams.
  37. secondary visual cortex, v2
    processes the information further and transmits it to additional areas.
  38. ventral stream
    • the “what” pathway
    • specialized for identifying and recognizing objects.
  39. dorsal stream
    • the “where/how” pathway
    • because it helps the motor system find and use objects.
  40. simple cell
    • has a receptive field with fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones.
    • response depends on angle of bar of light.
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Bio psyc final: vision and pain
2011-12-13 04:05:54
Bio psyc final vision pain

Bio psyc final: vision and pain
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