Biology

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Biology
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2011-12-13 00:00:29
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  1. Evolution
    descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; also defined more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
  2. Biology
    the scientific study of life
  3. Emergent Properties
    new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
  4. The Biosphere
    the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosytems
  5. Ecosystems
    all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them
  6. Communities
    all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction
  7. Populations
    a localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring
  8. Organ Systems
    a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
  9. Organs
    a specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues
  10. Tissues
    an integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
  11. Cells
  12. Organelles
    any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
  13. Molecules
    two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
  14. Systems Biology
    an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
  15. Eukaryotic Cell
    • a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and mebrane-enclosed organelles
    • organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes
  16. Prokaryotic Cell
    • a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and mebrane-enclosed organelles
    • organsims with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes
  17. DNA
    a double-stranded , helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
  18. Genes
    a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (orRNA, in some viruses)
  19. Genome
    the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences
  20. Bioinformatics
    the use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets
  21. Negative Feedback
    a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change
  22. Positive Feedback
    a physiological control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
  23. Domain Bacteria
  24. Domain Archaea
  25. Domain Eukarya
  26. Inquiry
    the search for information and explanation, often focused by specific questions
  27. Discovery Science
    the process of scientific inquiry that focuses on describing nature
  28. Data
    record observations
  29. Inductive Reasoning
    a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations
  30. Hypothesis
    a tentative answer to a well-framed question, narrower in scope than a theory and subject to testing
  31. Deductive Reasoning
    a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
  32. Controlled Expirement
    an expirement in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
  33. Theory
    an explanation that is broad in scope, generates new hypothesism and is supported by a large body of evidence
  34. Models
    a representation of theory or process
  35. Technology
    the application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industry or commerce but also including uses in basic research
  36. Compound
    a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio
  37. Element
    any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical reactions
  38. Trace Elements
    an element indispensible for life but required in extremely minute amounts
  39. Atom
    the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
  40. Neutrons
    a subatomic particle having no electrical charge (electrically neutral), with a mass of about 1.7 x 10-24g, found in the nucleus of an atom
  41. Protons
    a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, with a mass of about 1.7 x 10-24 g, found in the nucleeus of an atom
  42. Atomic Nucleus
  43. Dalton
  44. Atomic Number
  45. Atomic Mass
  46. Isotopes
  47. Radioactive Isotope
  48. Energy
  49. Potential Energy
  50. Electron Shells
  51. Valence Electrons
  52. Valence Shell
  53. Orbital
  54. Chemical Bonds
  55. Covalent Bond
  56. Molecule
  57. Single Bond
  58. Structural Formula
  59. Molecular Formula
  60. Double Bind
  61. Valence
  62. Electronegativity
  63. Nonpolar Covalent Bond
  64. Polar Covalent Bond
  65. Ion
  66. Cation
  67. Anion
  68. Ionic Bond
  69. Ionic Compounds
  70. Salts
  71. Hydrogen Bond
  72. Van der Waals Interactions
  73. Reactants
  74. Products
  75. Chemical Equilibrium
  76. Polar Molecule
  77. Cohesion
  78. Adhesion
  79. Surface Tension
  80. Kinetic Energy
  81. Heat
  82. Temperature
  83. Celsius Scale
  84. Calorie (cal)
  85. Kilocalorie (kcal)
  86. Joule (J)
  87. Specific Heat
  88. Heat of Vaporization
  89. Evaporative Cooling
  90. Solution
  91. Solvent
  92. Solute
  93. Aqueous Solution
  94. Hydration Shell
  95. Hydrophilic
  96. Colloid
  97. Hydrophobic
  98. Molecular Mass
  99. Mole (mol)
  100. Molarity
  101. Hydrogen Ion
  102. Hydroxide Ion
  103. Hydronium Ion
  104. Acid
  105. Base
  106. pH
  107. Buffers
  108. Precipitation
  109. Organic Chemistry
  110. Hydrocarbons
  111. Isomers
  112. Structural Isomers
  113. Geometric Isomers
  114. Enantiomers
  115. Functional Groups
  116. Hydroxyl Group
  117. Carbonyl
  118. Carboxyl
  119. Amino
  120. Sulfhydryl
  121. Phosphate
  122. Methyl
  123. Adenosine Triphosphate
  124. ATP
  125. Macromolecules
  126. Polymer
  127. Monomers
  128. Carbohydrates
  129. Lipids
  130. Proteins
  131. Nucleic Acids
  132. Condesation Reaction
  133. Dehyrdration Reaction
  134. Enzymes
  135. Hydrolysis
  136. Monosaccharides
  137. Disaccharide
  138. Glycosidic Linkage
  139. Polysaccharides
  140. Starch
  141. Glycogen
  142. Cellulose
  143. Lipids
  144. Fat
  145. Fatty Acid
  146. Triacylglycerol
  147. Saturated Fatty Acid
  148. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
  149. Trans Fats
  150. Phospholipids
  151. Cholestrol
  152. Steroids
  153. Enzymes
  154. Catalysts
  155. Enzymatic Proteins
  156. Structural Proteins
  157. Storage Proteins
  158. Transport Proteins
  159. Hormonal Proteins
  160. Receptor Proteins
  161. Contractile and Motor Proteins
  162. Defensive Proteins
  163. Polypedtides
  164. Protein
  165. Amino Acids
  166. Peptide Bond
  167. Primary Structure
  168. Secondary Structure
  169. Tertiary Structure
  170. Hydrophobic Interaction
  171. Disulfide Bridges
  172. Quaternary Structure
  173. Denaturation
  174. Chaperonins
  175. X-Ray Crystallography
  176. Gene
  177. Nucleic Acids
  178. Deoxribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  179. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
  180. Polynucleotides
  181. Nucleotides
  182. Pyrimidine
  183. Purines
  184. Ribose
  185. Deoxyribose
  186. Double Helix
  187. Antiparallel
  188. Light Microscope (LM)
  189. Organelles
  190. Electron Microscope (EM)
  191. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
  192. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  193. Cell Fractionation
  194. Cytosol
  195. Eukaryotic Cell
  196. Prokaryotic Cell
  197. Nucleoid
  198. Cytoplasm
  199. Plasma Membrane
  200. Animal Cells
  201. Plant Cells
  202. Nuclear Envelope
  203. Nuclear Lamina
  204. Chromosomes
  205. Chromatin
  206. Nucleolus
  207. Ribosomes
  208. Endomembrane System
  209. Vesicles
  210. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  211. Smooth ER
  212. Rough ER
  213. Glycoproteins
  214. Transport Vesicles
  215. Golgi Apparatus
  216. Lysosome
  217. Phagocytosis
  218. Food Vacuoles
  219. Contractile Vacuoles
  220. Central Vacuole
  221. Mitochondria
  222. Chloroplasts
  223. Peroxisome
  224. Mitochondrial Matrix
  225. Cristae
  226. Plastids
  227. Thylakoids
  228. Granum
  229. Stroma
  230. Cytoskeleton
  231. Motor Proteins
  232. Microtubules
  233. Centrosome
  234. Centrioles
  235. Flagella
  236. Cilia
  237. Basal Body
  238. Dyneins
  239. Microfilaments
  240. Actin
  241. Cortex
  242. Myosin
  243. Pseudopodia
  244. Cytoplasmic Streaming
  245. Intermediate Filaments
  246. Cell Wall
  247. Primary Cell Wall
  248. Middle Lamella
  249. Secondary Cell Wall
  250. Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
  251. Collagen
  252. Proteoglycans
  253. Fibronectin
  254. Integrins
  255. Plasmodesmata
  256. Selective Permeability
  257. Amphipathic
  258. Fluid Mosaic Model
  259. Integral Proteins
  260. Peripheral Proteins
  261. Glycolipids
  262. Glycoproteins
  263. Transport Proteins
  264. Aquaporins
  265. Diffusion
  266. Concentration Gradient
  267. Passive Transport
  268. Osmosis
  269. Tonicity
  270. Isotonic
  271. Hypertonic
  272. Hypotonic
  273. Osmoreregulation
  274. Flaccid
  275. Plasmolysis
  276. Facilitated Diffusion
  277. Ion Channels
  278. Gated Channels
  279. Active Transport
  280. Sodium-Potassium Pump
  281. Membrane Potential
  282. Electrochemical Gradient
  283. Electrogenic Pump
  284. Proton Pump
  285. Cotransport
  286. Exocytosis
  287. Endocytosis
  288. Phagocytosis
  289. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
  290. Pinocytosis
  291. Ligands
  292. Metabolism
  293. Metabolic Pathway
  294. Catabolic Pathways
  295. Anabolic Pathways
  296. Bioenergetics
  297. Energy
  298. Kinetic Energy
  299. Heat
  300. Thermal Energy
  301. Potential Energy
  302. Chemical Energy
  303. Thermodynamics
  304. First Law of Thermodynamics
  305. Entropy
  306. Second Law of Thermodynamics
  307. Free Energy
  308. Exergonic Reaction
  309. Endergonic Reaction
  310. Energy Coupling
  311. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
  312. Phosphorylated
  313. Enzyme
  314. Catalyst
  315. Activation Energy
  316. Substrate
  317. Enzyme-Substrate Complex
  318. Active Site
  319. Induced Fit
  320. Cofactors
  321. Coenzyme
  322. Competitive Inhibitors
  323. Noncompetitive Inhibitors
  324. Allosteric Regulation
  325. Cooperativity
  326. Feedback Inhibition
  327. Fermentation
  328. Aerobic Respiration
  329. Cellular Respiration
  330. Redox Reactions
  331. Oxidation
  332. Reduction
  333. Reducing Agent
  334. Oxidizing Agent
  335. NAD
  336. Electron Transport Chain
  337. Glycolysis
  338. The Citric Acid Cycle
  339. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  340. Chemiosmosis
  341. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
  342. Acetyl CoA
  343. Cytochromes
  344. ATP Synthase
  345. Proton-Motive Force
  346. Alcohol Fermentation
  347. Lactic Acid Fermentation
  348. Obligate Anaerobes
  349. Facultative Anaerobes
  350. Beta Oxidation
  351. Photosynthesis
  352. Autotrophs
  353. Hetertrophs
  354. Chlorphyll
  355. Mesophyll
  356. Stomata
  357. Stroma
  358. Thylakoids
  359. Light Reactions
  360. Calvin Cycle
  361. NAPD+
  362. Photophosphorylation
  363. Carbon Fixation
  364. Wavelength
  365. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  366. Visible Light
  367. Photons
  368. Spectrophotometer
  369. Absorption Spectrum
  370. Chlorophyll a
  371. Action Spectrum
  372. Chlorophyll b
  373. Carotenoids
  374. Photosystem
  375. Reaction-Center Complex
  376. Light-Harvesting Complex
  377. Primary Electron Acceptor
  378. Photosystem II
  379. Photosystem I
  380. Linear Electron Flow
  381. Cyclic Electron Flow
  382. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phospate (G3P)
  383. Carbon Fixation
  384. Reduction
  385. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)
  386. C3 Plants
  387. Photorespiration
  388. C4 Plants
  389. Bundle-Sheath Cells
  390. Mesophyll Cells
  391. CAM
  392. CAM Plants
  393. Cell Division
  394. Cell Cycle
  395. Genome
  396. Chromosomes
  397. Somatic Cells
  398. Gametes
  399. Sister Chromatids
  400. Chromatin
  401. Centromere
  402. Mitosis
  403. Cytokinesis
  404. Meiosis
  405. Mitotic Phase
  406. Interphase
  407. G1 Phase
  408. S Phase
  409. G2 Phase
  410. Prometaphase
  411. Metaphase
  412. Anaphase
  413. Prophase
  414. Telophase
  415. Mitotic Spindle
  416. Centrosome
  417. Aster
  418. Kinectochore
  419. Metaphase Plate
  420. Cleavage
  421. Cleavage Furrow
  422. Cell Plate
  423. Binary Fusion
  424. Origin of Replication
  425. Cell Cycle Control System
  426. Checkpoint
  427. G0 Phase
  428. Cyclin
  429. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (Cdks)
  430. MPF
  431. Growth Factor
  432. Density-Dependent Inhibition
  433. Anchorage Dependence
  434. Transformation
  435. Benign Tumor
  436. Malignant Tumor
  437. Metastasis
  438. Heredity
  439. Variation
  440. Genetics
  441. Genes
  442. Gametes
  443. Asexual Reproduction
  444. Clone
  445. Sexual Reproduction
  446. Life Cycle
  447. Somatic Cell
  448. Karyotype
  449. Homologous Chromosomes
  450. Sex Chromosomes
  451. Autosomes
  452. Diploid Cell
  453. Haploid Cells
  454. Ferilization
  455. Zygote
  456. Meiosis
  457. Alternation of Generations
  458. Sporophyte
  459. Spores
  460. Gametophyte
  461. Meiosis I
  462. Meiosis II
  463. Synapsis
  464. Crossing Over
  465. Chiasma
  466. Homologs on the Metaphase Plate
  467. Seperation of Homologs
  468. Recombinant Chromosomes
  469. True-Breeding
  470. Hybridization
  471. P Generation
  472. F1 Generation
  473. F2 Generation
  474. Alleles
  475. Dominant Allele
  476. Recessive Allele
  477. Law of Segregation
  478. Punnett Square
  479. Homozygous
  480. Heterozygous
  481. Phenotype
  482. Genotype
  483. Testcross
  484. Monohybrids
  485. Dihybrids
  486. Law of Independet Assortment
  487. Complete Dominance
  488. Incomplete Dominance
  489. Codominance
  490. Tay-Sachs Disease
  491. Pleiotropy
  492. Epistasis
  493. Quantitative Characters
  494. Polygenic Inheritance
  495. Norm of Reaction
  496. Multifactorial
  497. Pedigree
  498. Cystic Fibrosis
  499. Sickle-Cell Disease
  500. Huntington's Disease
  501. Amniocentesis
  502. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
  503. Transformation
  504. Bacteriophages
  505. Phages
  506. Double Helix
  507. Semiconserative Model
  508. Origins of Replication
  509. Replication Fork
  510. Helicases
  511. Single-Strand Binding Proteins
  512. Topoisomerase
  513. Primase
  514. Primer
  515. DNA Polymerases
  516. Leading Strand
  517. Lagging Strand
  518. Okazaki Fragments
  519. DNA Ligase
  520. Mismatch Repair
  521. Nuclease
  522. Nucleotide Excision Repair
  523. Telomers
  524. Telomerase
  525. Nucleiod
  526. Chromatin
  527. Heterochromatin
  528. Euchromatin
  529. Gene Expression
  530. Transcription
  531. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  532. Translation
  533. Ribosomes
  534. Primary Transcript
  535. Triplet Code
  536. Template Strand
  537. Codons
  538. Reading Frame
  539. RNA Polymerase
  540. Promotor
  541. Terminator
  542. Transcription Unit
  543. Transcription Factors
  544. Transcription Initiation Complex
  545. TATA Box
  546. Poly-A Tail
  547. RNA Splicing
  548. Introns
  549. Exons
  550. Spliceosome
  551. Ribozymes
  552. Alternative RNA Splicing
  553. Domains
  554. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  555. Anticodon
  556. Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases
  557. Wobble
  558. Ribosomal RNAs rRNAs
  559. P Site
  560. A Site
  561. E Site
  562. Polyribosomes (Polysomes)
  563. Signal Peptide
  564. Signal-Recognition Particle (SRP)
  565. Mutations
  566. Point Mutations
  567. Base-Pair Substitution
  568. Missense Mutations
  569. Insertions
  570. Deletions
  571. Frameshift Mutation
  572. Mutagens

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