Final WB part 3

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  1. High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:
    decreased oxygen inspiration
  2. In ARDS, increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability is caused by:
    • a, b, and c are correct
    • platelet activating factor, oxygen free radicals, tumor necrosis factor
  3. Type II pneumocyte damage causes:
    decreased surfactant production
  4. Pulmonary edema may be caused by abnormal:
    • a,b, and c are correct
    • capillary hydrostatic pressure, capillary oncotic pressure, and capillary permeability
  5. In bronchiole asthma:
    bronchial muscles contract
  6. In emphysema:
    None of the above are correct
  7. Which is inconsistent with pneumonia?
    involves only interstitial lung tissue
  8. Pulmonary hypertension:
    • Both a and c are correct
    • occurs when left arterial pressure is elevated, shows right ventricular hypertrophyon an ECG
  9. Cor pulmonale:
    • a, b, and c are correct
    • occurs in reponse to long-standing pulmonary hypertension, is right heart failure, is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds
  10. a lung cancer characterized by many anaplatic figures and the production of hormones is most likely:
    small cell carcinoma
  11. The metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma is:
  12. The functional unit of the kidney is the:
  13. One unique feature of renal blood circulation is that:
    there are two sets of capillaries
  14. Which has the opposite effect on urine production from the others?
    decreased solutes in blood
  15. The GFR is regulated by the:
    All of the above are correct
  16. The capillaries of the glomerulus differ from other capillary networks in the body because they:
    branch from and drain into arterioles
  17. Which is not a function of the kidney?
    Urine storage
  18. Potassium is secreted by the____ and reabsorbed by the_____.
    distal convuluted tubule; proximal convuluted tubule
  19. ADH causes water to
    • Both a and b are correct
    • diffuse into the ascending limb of the vasa recta, return to the systemic circulation
  20. Water reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate initially enters the
    vasa recta
  21. Plasma contains a much greater concentration of ____than the glomerular filtrate
  22. An increase in water permeability of the distal convuluted tubules and collection duct is the result of:
    an increase in production of ADH
  23. The descending loop of the nephron allows
    water reabsorption
  24. Which most accurately describes the pressures affecting net glomerular filtration?
    Blood hydrostatic opposes capsular hydrostatic and blood oncotic
  25. Tubular secretion of urea is accompllished in the:
    distal convuluted tubule
  26. Tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ in that:
    secretion adds material to the filtrate; reabsorption removes material from the filtrate
  27. If a small person excretes about 1 liter of urine during a 24 hour period, estimate the total amount of glomerular filtrate formed
    100 liters
  28. The loop of henle is to vasa recta as convoluted tubules are to:
    peritubular capillaries
  29. The two "currents" used in the countercurrent exchange system are the:
    ascending and descending limbs
  30. The countercurrent exchange system:
    facilitates osmosis
  31. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF):
    increases urine output
  32. A waste product of protein metabolism is:
  33. a new menstrual cycle has a rise in levels of:
  34. In a complete fraction
    the fracture crosses or invilves the entire width or thickness of the bone
  35. In an oblique fracture, the energy or force is:
    compressive and at an angle
  36. Which is a definite sign of a fracture?
    unnatural alignment
  37. Secondary muscular dysfunctions:
    • Both b and c are correct
    • can display contractures, result from failure of calcium pump
  38. the most common cause of osteomyelitis is:
    direct contamination of an open wound
  39. Osteoporosis pathogenesis involves:
    alteration in the OPG/RANKL/RANK system
  40. Osteomalacia causes
    • Both b and c are correct
    • inadequate mineralization, radiolucency
  41. Bone tumors may originate from all of the following except:
    epithelial tissue
  42. In benign bone tumors, there is:
    a uniform and well defined lytic area
  43. An osteosarcoma is a:
    osteogenic, malignant tumor
  44. A major symptom of bone cancer is a:
    persistent pain that worsens at night
  45. Giant cell tumors:
    have high recurrent rates
  46. Myeloma:
    • a,b, and c are correct
    • is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells, has a poor prognosis, infiltrates the bone marrow
  47. Rheumatoid arthritis begins with:
    destruction of the synovial membrane and subsynovia tissue
  48. In gout:
    • all of the above are correct
    • the pathogenesis is formation of monosodium urate crystals in joints and tissues, purine metabolism is altered, affected individuals likely have an inherited enzyme defect, the hyperuricemia can be the result of acquired chronic disease or a drug
  49. A muscle contracture is:
    muscle shortening possibly because of CNS injury
  50. Myotonia is all of the following except:
    unresponsiveness to neural stimulation
  51. Rhabdomyoosarcomas have:
    • All of the above are correct
    • a poor prognosis, aggressive invasion, early, widespread dissemination, pleomorphic types
  52. Progesterone:
    maintains the thickened endometrium
  53. The ovaries produce:
    Ova and estrogen
  54. During which days of the menstrual cycle does the endometrium achieve maximum development?
    20 to 24
  55. Hormones necessary for the growth and development of femal breasts are:
    estrogens and progesterone
  56. The structure that releases a mature ovum is the:
    Graafian follicle
  57. A major duct of the female reproductive system is the:
    uterine tube
  58. Prostate is to the accessory gland as gonad is to the
  59. cells that produce testeoterone are called:
    interstitial endocrinocytes
  60. The function of testosterone includes:
    all of the following
  61. Immediately after the sperm cells leave the ductus epididymis they enter the:
    ductus deferens
  62. a substance produced in the reproductive system mainly by the bulborethral glands is:
  63. During the follicular/proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
    vascularity of breast tissue increases
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Final WB part 3
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