Scripts & Schemas - Social Psychology

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Scripts & Schemas - Social Psychology
2011-12-13 05:00:56
Scripts Schemas

Scripts & Schemas
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  1. Galotti (1994) defined categories as a class of ___.
    Similar things
  2. What three features does the classical view of categorising have?
    • Necessary (every member must possess feature)
    • Sufficient (Subset sufficient to define category)
    • No better or worse member

    e.g. a triangle
  3. What problem did Rosch (1973) identify with the classical view of categorising?
    People do judge better/worse examples.
  4. What are the three features of the prototype view of categorisation?
    • Abstract
    • Composite of
    • Average features
  5. The prototype view of categorisation is an amalgomation of the most typical features into an ___.
  6. Wittgenstein (1953) used ___ to show the prototype view of categorisation.
    Family resemblence
  7. In a family resemblence, there is a prototype and the most common features of all members are taken to get an ___.
  8. The Exemplar view of categorisation is similar to the prototype view as it believes in ___.
    Family resemblence
  9. The main idea of the exemplar view of categorisaton is ___.
    Core representation - we don't compare to an abstract, we compare to the most typical real example.
  10. What structures between categories?
  11. A schema is a mental structure which contains genreral expectations and ___ of the world.
  12. Who coined the definition for a schema?
    Augoustinos & Walker (1995)
  13. Schemas are usually viewed as __ down/theory driven.
  14. Within a schema, there is a heavy influence of prior ___ on thoughts and behaviours.
  15. The idea of the ___ is relevant in relation to schemas.
    Cognitive miser
  16. Schemas are ___ constuctions of reality.
  17. What concept of schemas did Hastie & Kumar (1979) find is not necessarily accurate?
    Theory driven
  18. Hastie and Kumar (1979) found that if we are presented with data that contradicts our theoretical understanding, we do not ___ that data.
  19. Schemas are an imporvement on ___ and ___ as they go further than dividing the world up.
    Prototypes, exemplars
  20. What are the four types of schema?
    • Event Schema (Script)
    • Person Schema
    • Self Schema
    • Role Schema
  21. What type of schema is an appropriate sequence of action in well known everyday activities?
    Event Schema (Script)
  22. Schank and Abelson (1977) say that a script fills in ___ information once activated.
  23. Who proposed Script Theory?
    Schank & Abelson (1977)
  24. Script theory assumes that social events are ordered and ___.
  25. Script theory says that our participation relies on our use of prior knowledge and our ability to ___ this knowledge with new experience.
  26. Schank also developed ___.
    Case Based Reasoning
  27. Edwards (1997) said that social actions are categorised by falling into ____.
    Routine recognisable patterns
  28. In relation to Scripts, Edwards (1997) said that through discourse, people descriptively construct events as following or departing from some ___ or ___ order.
    Normative, expected
  29. The discursive approach to scripts states that descriptions of events are constructed in terms of what is ___ or ___ about them.
    Expected, Unusual
  30. What are schemas of personality traits, goals and intentions?
    Person schemas
  31. Person schemas are schemas of ___, ___ and ___.
    Personality traits, goals, intentions
  32. ___ determines person schemas.

    e.g. real life, TV, books
  33. What schemas categorise people according to dominant personality traits?
    Person schemas
  34. A self schema links to the self from the ___ unit.
    Social world
  35. In relation to a self schema, someting we have considered before which is therefore clear and applies to us is ___.
  36. In relation to a self schema, simething which is unclear and doesn't apply to us is ___.
  37. What schemas are for social roles and groups?
    Role schemas
  38. ___ roles are acquired through effort.
  39. ___ roles are automatic.
  40. Being a parent or doctor is an example of an ___ role.
  41. Being male is an example of an ___ role.
  42. What is the particular kind of role schema that organises people's expectations about other people who fall into certain social categories?
  43. Who coined the definition of a stereotype?
    Fiske & Taylor (1991)
  44. Dovidio et al (1986) say that ___ are beyond our control.
  45. Things like visual cues and prominent physical features have an effect on ___.
  46. Categorising into groups minimises ___ group differences.
  47. The notion that we are classed as belonging to an outgroup so only belong to that is the ___ effect.
    Outgroup Homogeneity
  48. ___ after encoding can affect what is remembered.
  49. What is the term fo going beyond the information given?
  50. Eyewitness testimony shows the importance of ___.
  51. Loftus & Palmer (1974) study showed that the wording of questions is important in ___.
    Eyewitness testimony
  52. What four ways did Fiske and Taylor (1991) say schemas develop?
    • 1. Become more ABSTRACT
    • 2. Become RICHER & MORE COMPLEX
    • 3. Become more ORGANISED
    • 4. Become more ACCURATE
  53. Schemas are resistant to ___.