Scripts & Schemas - Social Psychology

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rach123
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123338
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Scripts & Schemas - Social Psychology
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2011-12-13 05:00:56
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Scripts Schemas
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Scripts & Schemas
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  1. Galotti (1994) defined categories as a class of ___.
    Similar things
  2. What three features does the classical view of categorising have?
    • Necessary (every member must possess feature)
    • Sufficient (Subset sufficient to define category)
    • No better or worse member

    e.g. a triangle
  3. What problem did Rosch (1973) identify with the classical view of categorising?
    People do judge better/worse examples.
  4. What are the three features of the prototype view of categorisation?
    • Abstract
    • Composite of
    • Average features
  5. The prototype view of categorisation is an amalgomation of the most typical features into an ___.
    Average
  6. Wittgenstein (1953) used ___ to show the prototype view of categorisation.
    Family resemblence
  7. In a family resemblence, there is a prototype and the most common features of all members are taken to get an ___.
    Abstract
  8. The Exemplar view of categorisation is similar to the prototype view as it believes in ___.
    Family resemblence
  9. The main idea of the exemplar view of categorisaton is ___.
    Core representation - we don't compare to an abstract, we compare to the most typical real example.
  10. What structures between categories?
    Hierachy
  11. A schema is a mental structure which contains genreral expectations and ___ of the world.
    Knowledge
  12. Who coined the definition for a schema?
    Augoustinos & Walker (1995)
  13. Schemas are usually viewed as __ down/theory driven.
    Top
  14. Within a schema, there is a heavy influence of prior ___ on thoughts and behaviours.
    Knowledge
  15. The idea of the ___ is relevant in relation to schemas.
    Cognitive miser
  16. Schemas are ___ constuctions of reality.
    Active
  17. What concept of schemas did Hastie & Kumar (1979) find is not necessarily accurate?
    Theory driven
  18. Hastie and Kumar (1979) found that if we are presented with data that contradicts our theoretical understanding, we do not ___ that data.
    Ignore
  19. Schemas are an imporvement on ___ and ___ as they go further than dividing the world up.
    Prototypes, exemplars
  20. What are the four types of schema?
    • Event Schema (Script)
    • Person Schema
    • Self Schema
    • Role Schema
  21. What type of schema is an appropriate sequence of action in well known everyday activities?
    Event Schema (Script)
  22. Schank and Abelson (1977) say that a script fills in ___ information once activated.
    Missing
  23. Who proposed Script Theory?
    Schank & Abelson (1977)
  24. Script theory assumes that social events are ordered and ___.
    Predictable
  25. Script theory says that our participation relies on our use of prior knowledge and our ability to ___ this knowledge with new experience.
    Adapt
  26. Schank also developed ___.
    Case Based Reasoning
  27. Edwards (1997) said that social actions are categorised by falling into ____.
    Routine recognisable patterns
  28. In relation to Scripts, Edwards (1997) said that through discourse, people descriptively construct events as following or departing from some ___ or ___ order.
    Normative, expected
  29. The discursive approach to scripts states that descriptions of events are constructed in terms of what is ___ or ___ about them.
    Expected, Unusual
  30. What are schemas of personality traits, goals and intentions?
    Person schemas
  31. Person schemas are schemas of ___, ___ and ___.
    Personality traits, goals, intentions
  32. ___ determines person schemas.
    Experience

    e.g. real life, TV, books
  33. What schemas categorise people according to dominant personality traits?
    Person schemas
  34. A self schema links to the self from the ___ unit.
    Social world
  35. In relation to a self schema, someting we have considered before which is therefore clear and applies to us is ___.
    Self-schematic
  36. In relation to a self schema, simething which is unclear and doesn't apply to us is ___.
    Aschematic
  37. What schemas are for social roles and groups?
    Role schemas
  38. ___ roles are acquired through effort.
    Achieved
  39. ___ roles are automatic.
    Ascribed
  40. Being a parent or doctor is an example of an ___ role.
    Achieved
  41. Being male is an example of an ___ role.
    Ascribed
  42. What is the particular kind of role schema that organises people's expectations about other people who fall into certain social categories?
    Stereotype
  43. Who coined the definition of a stereotype?
    Fiske & Taylor (1991)
  44. Dovidio et al (1986) say that ___ are beyond our control.
    Stereotypes
  45. Things like visual cues and prominent physical features have an effect on ___.
    Encoding
  46. Categorising into groups minimises ___ group differences.
    Within
  47. The notion that we are classed as belonging to an outgroup so only belong to that is the ___ effect.
    Outgroup Homogeneity
  48. ___ after encoding can affect what is remembered.
    Cueing
  49. What is the term fo going beyond the information given?
    Inferences
  50. Eyewitness testimony shows the importance of ___.
    Inferences
  51. Loftus & Palmer (1974) study showed that the wording of questions is important in ___.
    Eyewitness testimony
  52. What four ways did Fiske and Taylor (1991) say schemas develop?
    • 1. Become more ABSTRACT
    • 2. Become RICHER & MORE COMPLEX
    • 3. Become more ORGANISED
    • 4. Become more ACCURATE
  53. Schemas are resistant to ___.
    Change

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