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Prejudice is an ___.
Prejudice is usually ___.
Prejudice is potentially ___.
Augoustinos & Walker (1995) say that prejudice is at its core, and evaluation of a ___.
What are the five features defined by Milner (1981) that remain throughout the traditional explanations of prejudice?
- Prejudice is an attitude
- It is based upon a faulty and inflexible generalisation
- It is a preconception
- It is rigid and resiliant
- Prejudice is bad
Personality approaches were a reaction to the rise in ___.
Personality approaches were based on a ___ perspective.
Personality approaches assume that prejudice is inherently ___.
Personality approaches attempt to define a ___ personality.
Who first looked at the fascist personality in relation to Nazism?
Who coined the idea of the authoritarian personality?
Adorno et al (1950)
Adorno et al were commissioned by the American Jewish Committee in an attempt to explain the basis of ___.
Anti-Semitism (The Holocaust)
What correlation did Adorno et al (1950) set out to determine?
Anti-Semitism and the other traits judged to make up the fascist personality
The Authoritarian Personality sought to identify individuals as fascists but also as having a ___.
The Authoritarian Personality measured traits on the ___ Scale.
Fascist personality traits were believed to have arisen from ___.
A childhood of strict parenting
Altermeyer (1981) re-evaluated the principles of the TAP and demonstrated that a ___ authoritarianism could be determined rather than a fascist personality.
What three attitudinal clusters did Altermeyer (1981) devise?
- Authoritarian submission (to authorities)
- Authoritarian aggression (perceived to be sanctioned by authorities)
- Conventionalism (adherence to social conventions endorsed by authorities)
The fascist personality says that an individual is drawn to the fascist leader, identifies powerfulyl with their ingroup and rejects forcefully the outgroups. The core of ths drive is ___.
Billig (1990) says that the emotional drive of fascism is based on what?
A damaged or fragmented personality
What Freudian theory is used as an explantion of the image of the 'other' as embodying many of the repressed emotions and desires of the fascist.
Social cognition approaches say that stereotypes and thus prejudice is linked to the ___ effect.
The social cognition approach says that we need to make cognitive ___ in procesing the social world.
Social cognition approaches say that cognitive short cuts can lead us to make ___ judgements based on little or no evidence of the group, rather than assessing the individual.
Social cognition approaches are fundamentally about ___.
Social cognition approaches say that the formation of stereotypes involves which two related processes?
- Perception of ingroups (to which we belong) as being different to outgroups
What is the view that direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility between groups?
Realistic Conflict Theory (Levine & Campbell 1972)
What is the belief that one's group fares poorly in comparison to other groups?
Which theory says that each of us strives to enhance our self-esteem which comprises a personal identity and various collective social identities that are based on the groups to which we belong?
Social Identity Theory
What two basic predictions does social identity theory make?
- 1. Threats to one's self esteem heighten the need for ingroup favouritism.
- 2. Expressions of ingroup favouritism enhance one's self esteem.
Which theory builds upon Social Identity Theory, and states that social and personal identity represent different forms of self categorisation?
Self Categorisation Theory.
Self Categorisation can occur on what three levels?
- Superordinate (self as part of humanity)
- Intermediate (self as part of group)
- Subordinate (self as individual)
Self categorisation is ___ specific.
Who devised Social Dominance Theory?
Sidanius & Pratto (1990)
Social Dominance theory says that people who want their group to be dominant over outgroups tend to have high ___.
Social Dominance orientation
Social Domiannce theory encourages acceptance of ___ and ___.
Who said that a problem with offering an account of social conflict in terms of unchanging instinct is at best suggesting that nothing can be done to alleviate prejudice and at worst justifying prejudice as an innate part of the human condition.
What did Allport (1954) propose?
The Contact Hypothesis
What hypothesis says that direct contact between rival groups can reduce stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination if:
it places the groups in a position of equal status
involves one-to-one interaction and cooperative activities centred on share goals,
social norms which favour intergroup contact?
The Contact Hypothesis (Allport 1954)
Critical approaches highlight the way in which prejudice is embedded in the ___.
Discourse analysts within critical social psychology are interested in how prejudice is produced and reproduced in ___ and ___.
Discourse analysis involves examining the action of the discourse and acknowledging that language performs ___.
What are the seven ways to achieve prejudice discursively?
- Strategic construction of groups
- Denial of prejudice
- Construction of fact
- Warranting through citing others/evidence
- Claims of objectivity