promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly.
Role of leadership
promote adaptive or useful changes
process of influencing others to understand and agree on what needs to be done and how to do it AND facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives
exerted by persons appointed or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations
exertd by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resouce needs of others
Approaches to leadership
trait and behavioral theory perspectives
attributional and symbolic perspectives
transformational and charismatic perspectives
Trait theories of leadership
assume that personality triats play a central role in differentaiting between leaders and nonleaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes
Assumes that leadership is central
to performance and other outcomes.
Focuses on leader behaviors rather than
U of M leadership studies
employee-centered supervisors (place strong emphasis on subordinate's welfare) and production-centered supervisors (place strong emphasis on getting the work done)
Ohio State leadership studies
consideration (sensitive to people's feelings and making things pleasant for the followers) and initiating structure (concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying other aspects of the work agenda.
situational contingency leadership
The effects of leader traits and
behaviors are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies.
The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do, as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions
Fiedler's contingency model
least preferred coworker scale
House’s path-goal theory of leadership
Assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust
his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies.
Informing subordinates what should be done and how to do it.
Showing care and concern for the subordinates’ well being.
Achievement oriented leadership
Emphasizing challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance and showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve goals
Seeking, and seriously considering subordinates’ input i before making decisions.
Hersey and Blanchard
Situational leadership model
Situational leadership model
Diagnose demands of the situation
Assess Readiness(The extent to which the follower has the ability and willingness to complete a task.)
Implement appropriate leadership response.
Graen’s Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
emphasizes the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers
Substitutes for leadership
Makes a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence.
Romance of leadership
a symbolic view-attributing romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership
Inference Based Leadership by Attribution
Leadership effectiveness is inferred.
It exists in the perceptions (attributions) of others, particularly followers.
a leader's effectiveness may be based on the evaluator's conception of what constiitutes a good or effective leader
Leaders who, by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.
Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers.
Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests.
Dimensions of transformational leadership
Involves owning one’s personal experiences AND acting in accordance with one’s true self
an individual's belief about the likelihood of successfully completing a specific task
the expectation of positive outcomes
the tendency to look for alternative pathways to reach a desired goal
the ability to bounce back from failure and keep forging ahead
Based on the premise that a primary purpose of business should be to create a positive impact on employees and the community.
includes values, attitudes, and behaviors grounded in ethics that intrinsically motivate the leader and others
affects followers by positively impcting their goals and beliefs through vision and values and intellectual stimulation.
an interactive, goal directed process among individuals at vaious levels within and external to the organization
an individual's portfolio of self-influence strategies that positively influence individual behavior and thought processes
deals with the idea that an organization must master the challenges of change while creating a satisfying, healthy and effective workplace for its employees
radically shifts the fundamental character of an organization
builds on the existing ways of operating, to enhance or extend them in new directions
spontaneous, and without a change agent's direction
intentional and occurs with a change agent's direction
encourages the replacement of old behaviors and attitudes with new behaviors
help employees learn new concepts or points of view
changes are reinforced and stabilized
uses authortiy, rewards and punishments to create change
rational persuasion strategy
uses facts, special knowledge, and rational argument to create change.
shared power strategy
uses participatory methods and emphasizes common values to create change
resistance to change
an attitude or behavior that shows unwillingness to make or support a change
The system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.
Knowing the mission and goals.
Knowing the tasks and methods to achieve them.
Methods of coping with success and failure.
The creation of a collective identity.
Finding ways of matching methods of working and living together.
A group of individuals with a unique pattern of shared values and philosophy that are not inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy .
groups where the shared pattern of values and philosopies outwardly reject those of the larger organization or social system.
layers of cultural analysis
Common cultural assumptions.
Heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments.
Standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence organizational members .
Any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning (i.e. the color brown and the nickname “Big Brown” is associated with UPS).
Help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions.
Tie the organization to the important values of society.
May provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage.
Unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically.
the dominant cultural patterns are inconsistent with emerging innovations
Techniques for overcoming cultural lag and promoting innovations
Demonstrate how current behaviors can be applied to new innovations.
Balance rule changing with rule following.
Reflect an organization’s intended contributions to the broader society.
Enable organizations to make legitimate claims over resources, individuals, markets, and products.
A written statement of organizational purpose.
Define the type of business the organization is pursuing.
Provide some substance to the more general aspects of mission statements.
Concerned with the conditions within the organization that are expected to increase the organization’s survival potential.
typical systems goals include...
growth, productivity, stability, harmony, flexibility, prestige, and human resource maintenance.
A hierarchical division of labor that distributes formal authority and establishes where and how critical decisions are to be made.
Creates an arrangement of work positions in order of increasing authority.
Diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations.
Typically show the various positions, the position holders, and the lines of authority.
span of control
The number of individuals reporting directly to a supervisor.
New information technologies have made it possible for complex organizations to broaden span of control.
Work groups that conduct the major business of the organization (production and marketing departments).
Work groups that assist the line units by providing specialized expertise and services to the organization (accounting, public relations).
The set of mechanisms used to keep actions and outputs within predetermined limits.
Focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods to reach defined targets.
Attempt to specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished.
types of process controls
Policies, procedures, and rules.
Formalization and standardization.
Total quality management controls.
Outlines important objectives and broadly indicates how activities are to be carried out.
Describes the best method for performing a task; shows which aspects of a task are most important.
Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is to be performed, or indicate what cannot be done.
The written documentation of policies, procedures, and rules to guide behavior and decision making
The degree to which the range of allowable actions in a job or series of jobs is limited so that actions are performed in a uniform manner
Total Quality Management
Process approach to continual improvement based on statistical analyses of the firm’s operations.
Degree to which the authority to make decisions is restricted to higher levels of management.
Degree to which the authority to make decisions is given to lower levels in an organization’s hierarchy.
A division of labor that establishes specific work units or groups within an organization.
Grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action.
Grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action.
Examples include marketing, finance, production, and human resources.
Most frequent form of horizontal specialization found in organizations.
Individuals and departments are grouped by products, territories, services, clients, or legal entities.
Uses both the functional and divisional forms simultaneously.
The set of mechanisms that an organization uses to link the actions of its units into a consistent pattern.
Form of organization that emphasizes legal authority, logic,clear division of labor, promotion by merit, and administrative rule.
Rigid, command-and-control structure.
Important when there is a need for uniform product quality, speedy service, and cleanliness
Emphasizes horizontal specialization, lateral relations, and coordination.
Minimal use of formal procedures.
Considerable reliance on judgment of experts.
Composed of quasi-independent divisions so that different divisions can be more or less organic or mechanistic.
A single corporation that contains a number of unrelated businesses.
A disagreement over goals, and the means for their accomplishment.
Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, and resentment.
A disagreement with someone over substantive issues or the emotional antagonism or friction between people
Results in constructive, positive benefits to individuals, the group, or the organization
Destructive to an individual or team
Traditional view of conflict
conflict is bad and should be resolved
human relations view of conflict
conflict exists and should be managed
interactionist view of conflict
conflict should be encouraged
Situation in which the underlying reasons for a given destructive conflict are eliminated.
Underlying reasons or conditions from which conflicts are likely to develop.
When the antecedents become the basis for substantive or emotional differences between people or groups.
Conflict experienced as tension that motivates the person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort.
Conflict can be manifested in actual behaviors that attempt to remove or correct conflict antecedents.
occurs between hierarchicak levels
occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level
involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters
role ambiguity conflicts
Occur when the communication task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting.
Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals.
Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority.
When resources are scarce, working relationships are likely to suffer.
power or value asymmetries
Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values
Adjusting the level of interdependency among units or individuals when workflow conflicts exist
Decoupling, buffering, and linking pin strategies address specific organizational situations.
appeal to common goals
Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion.
Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more senior managers to reconcile.
altering scripts and myths
Superficial management of conflict by using behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture.
Nobody gets what he or she wants; underlying reasons remain unresolved. Strategies include:
Accommodation- playing down differences.
Compromise- giving up something valued.
One party achieves its desires at the expense and to the exclusion of the other party’s desires.
Competition - force, skill, or domination
Authoritative command – quick and decisive
Achieved by a blend of both high cooperativeness and high assertiveness.
Collaboration or problem solving
The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences and goal expectations.
Outcomes that relate to content issues.
Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations are able to work with one another once the process is concluded.
effective negotiation factors
Quality– all sides are satisfied.
Harmony– good interpersonal relations.
Efficiency-optimal use of time and resources.
Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties
Sometimes called principled negotiation
Focuses on the merits of the issues
Range between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other party’s maximum reservation point.
foundations of integrative negotiation
third party negotiations
A neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes.
A third party acts as a “judge” and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties
A neutral third party tries to engage disputing parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument