Org. Behavior Final

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  1. Role of management
    promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly.
  2. Role of leadership
    promote adaptive or useful changes
  3. Leadership
    process of influencing others to understand and agree on what needs to be done and how to do it AND facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives
  4. Formal leadership
    exerted by persons appointed or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations
  5. Informal leadership
    exertd by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resouce needs of others
  6. Approaches to leadership
    • trait and behavioral theory perspectives
    • attributional and symbolic perspectives
    • transformational and charismatic perspectives
  7. Trait theories of leadership
    assume that personality triats play a central role in differentaiting between leaders and nonleaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes
  8. Behavioral theories
    • Assumes that leadership is central
    • to performance and other outcomes.
    • Focuses on leader behaviors rather than
    • traits
  9. U of M leadership studies
    employee-centered supervisors (place strong emphasis on subordinate's welfare) and production-centered supervisors (place strong emphasis on getting the work done)
  10. Ohio State leadership studies
    consideration (sensitive to people's feelings and making things pleasant for the followers) and initiating structure (concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying other aspects of the work agenda.
  11. situational contingency leadership
    • The effects of leader traits and
    • behaviors are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies.
  12. Situational control
    The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do, as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions
  13. Fiedler's contingency model
    least preferred coworker scale
  14. House’s path-goal theory of leadership
    • Assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust
    • his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies.
  15. Directive leadership
    Informing subordinates what should be done and how to do it.
  16. Supportive leadership
    Showing care and concern for the subordinates’ well being.
  17. Achievement oriented leadership
    Emphasizing challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance and showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve goals
  18. Participative leadership
    Seeking, and seriously considering subordinates’ input i before making decisions.
  19. Hersey and Blanchard
    Situational leadership model
  20. Situational leadership model
    • Diagnose demands of the situation
    • Assess Readiness(The extent to which the follower has the ability and willingness to complete a task.)
    • Implement appropriate leadership response.
  21. Graen’s Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
    emphasizes the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers
  22. Substitutes for leadership
    Makes a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence.
  23. Romance of leadership
    a symbolic view-attributing romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership
  24. Inference Based Leadership by Attribution
    • Leadership effectiveness is inferred.
    • It exists in the perceptions (attributions) of others, particularly followers.
  25. Recognition-based prototype
    a leader's effectiveness may be based on the evaluator's conception of what constiitutes a good or effective leader
  26. Charismatic leaders
    Leaders who, by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.
  27. Transactional leadership
    Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers.
  28. Transformational leadership
    Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests.
  29. Dimensions of transformational leadership
    • Charisma
    • Inspiration
    • Intellectual stimulation
    • Individualized consideration
  30. Authentic leadership
    Involves owning one’s personal experiences AND acting in accordance with one’s true self
  31. Self-efficacy
    an individual's belief about the likelihood of successfully completing a specific task
  32. Optimism
    the expectation of positive outcomes
  33. Hope
    the tendency to look for alternative pathways to reach a desired goal
  34. Resilience
    the ability to bounce back from failure and keep forging ahead
  35. Servant leadership
    Based on the premise that a primary purpose of business should be to create a positive impact on employees and the community.
  36. Spiritual leadership
    includes values, attitudes, and behaviors grounded in ethics that intrinsically motivate the leader and others
  37. Transformational leadership
    affects followers by positively impcting their goals and beliefs through vision and values and intellectual stimulation.
  38. Shared leadership
    an interactive, goal directed process among individuals at vaious levels within and external to the organization
  39. self-leadership activities
    an individual's portfolio of self-influence strategies that positively influence individual behavior and thought processes
  40. Change leadership
    deals with the idea that an organization must master the challenges of change while creating a satisfying, healthy and effective workplace for its employees
  41. Transformational change
    radically shifts the fundamental character of an organization
  42. incremental change
    builds on the existing ways of operating, to enhance or extend them in new directions
  43. unplanned change
    spontaneous, and without a change agent's direction
  44. planned change
    intentional and occurs with a change agent's direction
  45. unfreezing
    encourages the replacement of old behaviors and attitudes with new behaviors
  46. changing
    help employees learn new concepts or points of view
  47. refreezing
    changes are reinforced and stabilized
  48. force-coercion strategy
    uses authortiy, rewards and punishments to create change
  49. rational persuasion strategy
    uses facts, special knowledge, and rational argument to create change.
  50. shared power strategy
    uses participatory methods and emphasizes common values to create change
  51. resistance to change
    an attitude or behavior that shows unwillingness to make or support a change
  52. organizational culture
    The system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.
  53. external adaptation
    • Knowing the mission and goals.
    • Knowing the tasks and methods to achieve them.
    • Methods of coping with success and failure.
  54. internal integration
    • The creation of a collective identity.
    • Finding ways of matching methods of working and living together.
  55. subculture
    A group of individuals with a unique pattern of shared values and philosophy that are not inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy .
  56. counterculture
    groups where the shared pattern of values and philosopies outwardly reject those of the larger organization or social system.
  57. layers of cultural analysis
    • Observable culture.
    • Shared values.
    • Common cultural assumptions.
  58. sagas
    Heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments.
  59. rites
    Standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence organizational members .
  60. cultural symbols
    Any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning (i.e. the color brown and the nickname “Big Brown” is associated with UPS).
  61. shared values
    • Help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions.
    • Tie the organization to the important values of society.
    • May provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage.
  62. organizational myths
    Unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically.
  63. organizational lag
    the dominant cultural patterns are inconsistent with emerging innovations
  64. Techniques for overcoming cultural lag and promoting innovations
    • Demonstrate how current behaviors can be applied to new innovations.
    • Balance rule changing with rule following.
  65. societal goals
    • Reflect an organization’s intended contributions to the broader society.
    • Enable organizations to make legitimate claims over resources, individuals, markets, and products.
  66. mission statement
    A written statement of organizational purpose.
  67. output goals
    • Define the type of business the organization is pursuing.
    • Provide some substance to the more general aspects of mission statements.
  68. systems goals
    Concerned with the conditions within the organization that are expected to increase the organization’s survival potential.
  69. typical systems goals include...
    growth, productivity, stability, harmony, flexibility, prestige, and human resource maintenance.
  70. vertical specialization
    • A hierarchical division of labor that distributes formal authority and establishes where and how critical decisions are to be made.
    • Creates an arrangement of work positions in order of increasing authority.
  71. organization charts
    • Diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations.
    • Typically show the various positions, the position holders, and the lines of authority.
  72. span of control
    • The number of individuals reporting directly to a supervisor.
    • New information technologies have made it possible for complex organizations to broaden span of control.
  73. line units
    Work groups that conduct the major business of the organization (production and marketing departments).
  74. staff units
    Work groups that assist the line units by providing specialized expertise and services to the organization (accounting, public relations).
  75. control
    The set of mechanisms used to keep actions and outputs within predetermined limits.
  76. output controls
    Focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods to reach defined targets.
  77. process controls
    Attempt to specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished.
  78. types of process controls
    • Policies, procedures, and rules.
    • Formalization and standardization.
    • Total quality management controls.
  79. policy
    Outlines important objectives and broadly indicates how activities are to be carried out.
  80. procedures
    Describes the best method for performing a task; shows which aspects of a task are most important.
  81. rules
    Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is to be performed, or indicate what cannot be done.
  82. formalization
    The written documentation of policies, procedures, and rules to guide behavior and decision making
  83. standardization
    The degree to which the range of allowable actions in a job or series of jobs is limited so that actions are performed in a uniform manner
  84. Total Quality Management
    Process approach to continual improvement based on statistical analyses of the firm’s operations.
  85. centralization
    Degree to which the authority to make decisions is restricted to higher levels of management.
  86. decentralization
    Degree to which the authority to make decisions is given to lower levels in an organization’s hierarchy.
  87. horizontal specialization
    A division of labor that establishes specific work units or groups within an organization.
  88. functional departmentalization
    Grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action.
  89. functional departmentalization
    • Grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action.
    • Examples include marketing, finance, production, and human resources.
    • Most frequent form of horizontal specialization found in organizations.
  90. divisional deparments
    Individuals and departments are grouped by products, territories, services, clients, or legal entities.
  91. matrix departmentalization
    Uses both the functional and divisional forms simultaneously.
  92. coordination
    The set of mechanisms that an organization uses to link the actions of its units into a consistent pattern.
  93. bureaucracy
    Form of organization that emphasizes legal authority, logic,clear division of labor, promotion by merit, and administrative rule.
  94. mechanistic bureaucracy
    • Rigid, command-and-control structure.
    • Important when there is a need for uniform product quality, speedy service, and cleanliness
  95. organic bureaucracy
    • Emphasizes horizontal specialization, lateral relations, and coordination.
    • Minimal use of formal procedures.
    • Considerable reliance on judgment of experts.
  96. divisional firm
    Composed of quasi-independent divisions so that different divisions can be more or less organic or mechanistic.
  97. conglomerate
    A single corporation that contains a number of unrelated businesses.
  98. substantive
    A disagreement over goals, and the means for their accomplishment.
  99. emotional
    Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, and resentment.
  100. Conflict
    A disagreement with someone over substantive issues or the emotional antagonism or friction between people
  101. functional conflict
    Results in constructive, positive benefits to individuals, the group, or the organization
  102. dysfunctional conflict
    Destructive to an individual or team
  103. Traditional view of conflict
    conflict is bad and should be resolved
  104. human relations view of conflict
    conflict exists and should be managed
  105. interactionist view of conflict
    conflict should be encouraged
  106. conflict resolution
    Situation in which the underlying reasons for a given destructive conflict are eliminated.
  107. conflict antecedents
    Underlying reasons or conditions from which conflicts are likely to develop.
  108. perceived conflict
    When the antecedents become the basis for substantive or emotional differences between people or groups.
  109. felt conflict
    Conflict experienced as tension that motivates the person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort.
  110. manifest conflict
    Conflict can be manifested in actual behaviors that attempt to remove or correct conflict antecedents.
  111. vertical conflict
    occurs between hierarchicak levels
  112. horizontal conflict
    occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level
  113. line-staff conflict
    involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters
  114. role ambiguity conflicts
    Occur when the communication task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting.
  115. workflow interdependencies
    Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals.
  116. domain ambiguities
    Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority.
  117. resource scarcity
    When resources are scarce, working relationships are likely to suffer.
  118. power or value asymmetries
    Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values
  119. reduced interdependence
    • Adjusting the level of interdependency among units or individuals when workflow conflicts exist
    • Decoupling, buffering, and linking pin strategies address specific organizational situations.
  120. appeal to common goals
    Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion.
  121. hierarchical refferal
    Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more senior managers to reconcile.
  122. altering scripts and myths
    Superficial management of conflict by using behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture.
  123. lose-lose conflict
    • Nobody gets what he or she wants; underlying reasons remain unresolved. Strategies include:
    • Avoidance.
    • Accommodation- playing down differences.
    • Compromise- giving up something valued.
  124. win-lose conflict
    • One party achieves its desires at the expense and to the exclusion of the other party’s desires.
    • Competition - force, skill, or domination
    • Authoritative command – quick and decisive
  125. win-win conflict
    • Achieved by a blend of both high cooperativeness and high assertiveness.
    • Collaboration or problem solving
  126. negotiation
    The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences and goal expectations.
  127. substance goals
    Outcomes that relate to content issues.
  128. relationship goals
    Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations are able to work with one another once the process is concluded.
  129. effective negotiation factors
    • Quality– all sides are satisfied.
    • Harmony– good interpersonal relations.
    • Efficiency-optimal use of time and resources.
  130. distributive negotiation
    Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties
  131. integrative negotiation
    • Sometimes called principled negotiation
    • Focuses on the merits of the issues
  132. bargaining zone
    Range between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other party’s maximum reservation point.
  133. foundations of integrative negotiation
    • attitudes
    • behaviors
    • information
  134. third party negotiations
    A neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes.
  135. arbitration
    A third party acts as a “judge” and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties
  136. mediation
    A neutral third party tries to engage disputing parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument
Card Set:
Org. Behavior Final
2011-12-13 10:39:36
MGT 240

MGT 240 Final
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