food hygiene

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candeloras1
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123374
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food hygiene
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2011-12-13 12:49:07
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food final
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food final
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  1. non spore former
    leading cause of baterial diarrheal illness in us
    infective dose 400-500 cells
    campylobacter jejuni
  2. diarrhea
    fever
    abdomonal pain
    nausea vomiting
    fatality rate low aprox 100 deaths per year
    campylobacter jejuni
  3. infectious period 2-5 days
    raw poultry associated with outbreaks
    campylobacter
  4. reactive arthritis
    HUS
    septicemia
    guillaine barrae (muscle weakness)
    campylobacter jejuni
  5. avoid cross contamination
    raw milk treat water
    hand washing
    cook poultry 165
    good slaughter
    campylobacter
  6. smaller than smalleest know virus
    no nucleic acid
    prions
  7. insoluble in all but strongest solvents
    higly resistant to digenstion
    survives in post mortem tissues
    no detectable immune response
    prion
  8. scrappie in sheep
    chronic wasting in elk/deer
    Mad cow
    classic creutzfeldt jakob kuru
    varrient cj
    prions
  9. fatal degenerative disease affecting central nervous system of cow
    mad cow
  10. incubation 2-8 years
    initial neurological signs apprehension fear easily started depressed
    fianl stages excitable hyperreflexia hypermetria ataxia tremors
    terminal stage decreased rumination
    loss body weight despite good appititie
    no treatment
    BSE
  11. vacuoles
    microscopic holes in grey matter
    bse
  12. diagnosis
    slowly progressive always fate nerological disease
    no animortem testing
    BSE
  13. transmission maternal trasnmsission possbile
    contaminated feed
    brain spinal cord retina
    BSE
  14. controls sampling 40,000 animals tested each year
    strict import rules
    cannot feed mamalian protients to rumnants
    bse
  15. controls
    banning non ambulatory cattle
    rohibiting air stunning of slaghter cattle
    bse
  16. human transmission consuption of cattle brain and spinal cord
    surgical instuments used on tonsisls appendix and brain tissue cornea transplan
    human BSE
  17. unlikely through blood
    consuption of milk and milk products
    BSE
  18. Critera for diagnosis
    neropsychiatric disorder with duration longer than 6 months
    specific cilinal signs
    abnormal eeg
    bse
  19. no effective treatments avaliable
    symptomatic treatment
    supportive care
    no vaccine
    bse
  20. porous load autoclaving 134-138 celcius 18 minutes--not always efective
    sodium hypochlorite 2% avaliable chlorine
    BSE
  21. rod shaped
    non spore former
    faculatice anarobes
    transmitted by water food humans and animals
    disasters
    shigella
  22. s. sonnei 75% of all us cases less sever
    shigella
  23. infectious period 1-7 days usually <4
    shigella
  24. diarrhea (bloody mucus pus)
    dehydration
    chills
    fever
    tenesmus
    toxemia
    shigella
  25. duration few days to 2 weeks
    carrier state 3-5 weeks
    infective dose 10 cells usually 100-1000
    fatality rate 10-20% in some strains
    shigella
  26. person to person (day care and istitutions )
    food borne
    fecal oral route
    shigella
  27. survival in food
    rage of -4 farenheit to room temp
    ph 2-3 for several hours
    very acidic
    shigella
  28. leads to uclers and bleeding
    mucosal ulcerations-rectal bleeding
    sever dehydration
    HUS
    reiters syndrome--arthritis conguntivitis uti
    shigella
  29. target pop--infants elderly infirm
    poor personal hygiene temperature abuse flies
    foods--salad reday to eat water milk
    shigella
  30. treatment supportive care rehydration antibiotics somtimes
    control--prevent ill food workers prohibit bare hand contanct proper food temp wash hands and finger nails
    shigella
  31. toxin mediated infection
    strict anerobe
    spore former
    clostridium perferingens
  32. IP 6-24 hours median 12
    sudden on set
    lowe gi
    diarrhea
    intense abdominal cramps
    gas production
    c. perfringens
  33. duration 24 hours
    dose-large number of vegetative cells 10to the 5th
    temperature
    68-122 f
    optimum 108-116
    fastest growning bacterium heat may stimulate spore
    c. perferinges
  34. toxico-infection/ toxin mediated infection
    toxin relased in small intestine
    c. perferingines
  35. food of animal origin
    meats meat products gravey poultry
    boild stewed casseroled foods
    c. perfringnes
  36. temperature abuse
    inital cook may heat shock spores
    cooking deprives off oxygen
    insuffcient reheating
    slow cookign allows growth to large #s
    c. perfingines
  37. rapid cooling sufficent reheating
    dont prepare in advance
    dotn partially cook
    prepare in smaller quantities
    c. perfingines
  38. 10/5th
    in stool of cases 10/6th
    plus epi clinical and envrionmental evidence
    toxin in stool
    c. perfingines
  39. rarely fatal toxin can caus sever damage to intestine
    c. perfringens
  40. causes infection
    part of normal microflora of humans and warm blooded animals
    ecoli
  41. present in fecees
    non spore former
    ecoli
  42. most strains are harmless
    four main classes
    ecoli
  43. acute disease hemorrhagic colitis
    hermorrhagic colitis
    emolytic uremic syndrome
    thromotic thrombocytopenic purpura
    enterohemorrhagic e coli o157 h7
  44. ip 2-10 days median 3-4
    sever cramping
    no fever
    diarrhea initally watery then becomes extremly bloody and no stool
    0157 h7
  45. complications
    HUS --leading cause of renal faliure
    mortality rate is high in elderly with hus 50%
    in children 3-10%
    infective dose 10-100cells
    vero toxins
    0157 h7
  46. 12-30% will have long term problems
    hypertension
    renal problems
    other organ problems cns problems
    treatment
    hydration
    antibiotics make hus risk incease
    0157 h7
  47. ground beef
    melons greens sprouts
    spinache
    sausage
    apple juice cider
    o157 h7
  48. small roudn structure
    single strand rna
    GI GII GIV
    survives easily in the envrionment
    norovirus
  49. vomiting (children)
    diarrhea (adults)
    nausea
    abdomnial cramps
    headache muscle aches
    fever
    up to 30% asymptomatic
    norovirus
  50. dose 10-100 virus particles
    incubation 24-48 hours usually 36
    duration 12-60 hours
    mild short lived virus
    viral sheding of 3 weeks or more
    iv fluids
    norovirus
  51. stable over wide range of temperatures
    infectious after exposure to acid environment ph <3
    survives 10 ppm chlorine
    norovirus
  52. fecal oral route
    food
    hands person to person
    water
    carpets toilets
    airborne inhalation of vomitus droplets
    norovirus
  53. RNA picrnavirus
    no chronic infection
    confers life long imunity
    temporaraily damages liver by infecting cells
    hep a
  54. nausea
    vomiting
    diarrhea
    fever fatigue dark urine jaundice
    incubation 30 days average (15-50)
    duration 2 months can relapse
    IGM antibody
    no symptoms when infected
    occur in community wide outbreaks
    close person contact
    kill 185 d ferinheit for 1 min
    adequate chlorination of water
    hep a
  55. grow and produce toxins on crops and foodstuffs under certian conditions
    realtivly heat stable
    stay in food and feed for long periods
    mycotoxins
  56. formed turing growth of fungi
    affects liver kidneys lungs
    nervous endocrine and immune system
    mycotoxins
  57. peanuts corn nuts oils creals tomatoes
    aspergillus flavus
    carcinogenic
    aflatoxin
  58. ergot in claviceps putpurea parastic fungus of rye and oteher grains
    ergotism
  59. convulsions tingling numbnes spasmas of mucles
    salem witch trials
    convulsive ergotism
  60. body parts become swollen infmalmed violent and burning pain (fire of st anthony) numb black shrik mimmified dry fall off
    gangrenous ergotism
  61. most common
    symptoms mimic allergic reaction
    flush face neck upper arms
    nausea vomiting diarrhea adb pain
    sever-hypotension tachycardia reperatory distress
    onset 10-90 mins
    duration 12 hours
    scombroid
  62. diagnosis-short onset time fish consuption
    detection of histamine in fish
    frequently misdiagnosed
    treatment--usually not needed antihistamines hydration
    asscotiated marine fish tuna
    cause by fish stored at inappropriate temps
    histamine heat stable
    control--refridgeration
    scombroid
  63. 50000 cases world wide
    fish from tropical reef
    grouper snapper baracuda
    toxin orginiates from several dinoflagellates
    gi nerological cardiovascualr symptoms
    onset 12-18 hours
    reversal of hot and cold
    recovery weeks months years
    supportive care amytriptilene (chornic)
    ciguatera
  64. associated with fugu
    globe fish swellfish
    japan china
    can be fatal if fish not prpperly prepared
    nausea vomiting gi pain repiratory distress
    no antidote supportive care
    caused by tetrodotoxin TTX
    puffer fish poisoning
  65. neurotoxic (NSP)
    Paralytic (PSP)
    Amnesic (ASP domoci acid)
    shellfish poisining
  66. mimic ciguatera gi nero but less sever
    onset 30 min 3 hours
    duration 2 days
    supportive care no antidote
    red tide
    moniter costal waters
    neurotoxix shellfish poisoning
  67. caused by eating shell fish clams musscles oysters
    saxitoxin
    serious life theating
    red brown tide
    us new england pacfic north west alaska
    onset within minutes
    peripheral nerous system tingly prickly feeling in lips tounge
    ataxic gate
    muscular incoordination
    deaht 2-24 hours depending on dose
    if survive 1st 24 hours will most likely survive
    no antidote CPR life support
    harvest from safe areas
    Paralytic shellfish poisoning
  68. rare but life threatening cause by eating shell fish contaminated by domoci acid
    vomiting diarrhea ab cramps
    nero in elderly--short term memory loss
    no treatment
    monitroing of algal blooms
    amnesic shellfish poisoning
  69. non bacterial diarrhea in norh america
    upper small intestine
    incbation 3-25 days (7-10)
    asymptomatic
    acute self limiting diarrhea bloating comiting lactoes intolerance
    greasey stool wright loss
    reactive arthrisit damage to inestine
    quinacrine metronidazole
    boil water
    giardia lamlis
  70. toxoplama gondii
    pregnate women and immune compromised
    caused by--touching anything with cat feces
    pork lamb venison
    water
    most unaware of infection
    swollen lymph nodes
    muscle ache
    flu like symptoms
    can affect new borns and infants
    can be fatal in immunocompromised
    can be treated with drugs if necessary
    toxoplasmosis
  71. trichinella spirallis
    incubation 8-15 days but diarrhea may appear ina few days
    muscle soreness pain edma in eyelids
    rare cns heart--death
    usually no treatment
    cook to 145 degrees 3 mins no raw meat to pigs post slaugter inspections
    trichinosis
  72. protozoan
    watery diarrhea with frequent sometimes explosive bowel movements
    loss of apitite substantial weight loss low grade fever
    median incubation 1 week
    duration days to 1 month
    fresh produce
    fecal oral
    2 antibiotics
    irradiate produce
    cyclosproa
  73. protozoan watery diarrhea 17 liters/day
    infected cows goats sheep deer cattl elk
    incubation 2-10 days
    duation 2-4 days to 1-4 weeks
    fresh produce ice/water cider
    asymptomatic infection
    no treatment
    fluid hydration
    fecal oral route
    water borne asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers
    cryptosporidium parvum
  74. fish tape worm in trout salmon pike sea bass
    attach human intestine
    vauge abd discomfort
    nausea vomiting diarrhea
    cold climate areas erope n. america japan
    1 dose praziquantel
    diphyllobothriasis
  75. larve cause infection in humans
    within minutes or hours after ingestion of infected larve
    violetn abd pain
    nausea
    sometimes larve coughed up
    larve passed in bowl may cause crohns like symptoms
    marine fish squid shushi sashimi cerviche
    surgical removal
    anisakiasis
  76. water borne
    incubation 1-5 days
    rehydration
    present in feces 7-14 days after infection
    cholera

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