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  1. Tegucigalpa
    capital of honduras
  2. Huracán Mitch
    • honduras, guatemala and nicaragua
    • 2nd deadiliest in history 11k people killed
  3. José Manuel Zelaya
  4. president of honduras from 2006-2009
    ran as a conservative, turned to liberal in office
  5. Managua
    capital of nicaragua
  6. Anastasio Somoza
  7. president of nicaragua from 1967-1972
    • last member of the somoza family after in power since 1932
    • overthrown by the FSLN and was in exile.
    • Killed in paraguay overthrown by the Frente Sandinistas de liberacion nacional (FSLN
  8. Los Sandinistas y los Contra
  9. los sandinistas are members of FSLN los contras opposed the sandinistas and FSLN
    • contras recieved support from USA
    • later banned by congress but Reagan tried to continue aid
  10. Daniel Ortega
  11. current president of Nicaragua
    • also 79th president from 1985-1990
    • leader of FSLN
  12. Manuel Noriega
  13. miliarty dictator of panama from 1983 – 1989
    • US invaded panama in 1989 and removed him from power. He was made a prisoner of war
    • convicted of drug traficing, racketeering and money laundering
    • extradited to panama 12/11/2011
  14. Benito Juárez
  15. also served five terms as president of Mexico: 1858–1861 as interim, 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872.
    • resisted french ocupation
    • overthrew the enpire
    • restored the republic
    • used liberal efforst to modernize the country
    • early on exiled to louaisana and worked in a cigar factory
    • he was indigenous
  16. Porfirio Díaz, el porfiriato (1830-1915)
  17. president of mexico 1976-1911
    • mexiamerican war volunteer
    • french intervention hero and general
    • conservative regime unpopular
    • fell during mexican revolution
    • imprisoned rival and declared 8th term removed restrictions on re-election
  18. Emiliano Zapata y la Revolución
  19. leading figure in the mexican revolution which broke out in 1910
    • the revolution was intially directed towards diaz
    • formed and comanded a revolutionary force
    • followers known as zapatistas
  20. Pancho Villa (jose doroteo arango arambula) (1878-1923)
  21. one of the most prominent mexican revolutionary generals
    • commander of the division of the north
    • leader of the mexican state of chihuahua which gave him lots of resources
    • honored by mexicans
    • siezed hacienda land for distriubution to peasants and soldiers
    • printed fiat money to pay for his cause and robbed commandeered trains
  22. Constitución 1917
  23. political constituion of the United Mexican States
    • constitution of mexico
    • drafted during the mexican revolution first to set out social rights
  24. Lázaro Cárdenas (1895-1970)
  25. president of mexico from 1934-1940
    • selected by calles but then had him deported to the US
    • for agraian reform
  26. Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)
  27. mexican politican party that held power for 70 years
    a centrist party close to socialism but not considered so
  28. El masacre de Tlatelolco
    mascre in mexico city of a bunch of students before the olympics of 1968
  29. Felipe Calderón
    current president of mexico
  30. Los Duvalier: Papa Doc y Baby Doc
  31. François Duvalier (apodado "Papa Doc"), Dictador de Haití entre 1957 y 1971.
    • • Simone Ovid Duvalier, su mujer.
    • • Jean-Claude Duvalier (apodado "Bébé Doc" o "Baby Doc"), Presidente de Haití entre 1971 y 1986.
    • • Michèle Bennett Duvalier, su ex-mujer.
  32. Jean Bertrand Artistide
  33. haiti first democratically elected president
    Aristide was ousted in a 29 February 2004 coup d'état
  34. Michel Martelly
    president of haiti
  35. Santo Domingo
  36. capital of the dominica republic and largest city
  37. Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
  38. president of the dominican republic from 1930 to his assasination in 1961
    • and again from 1942-1952
    • the trujillo era considered the bloodies in the history of the americas
    • resposible for the death of 50k, 20-30k in the parsley mascre
  39. Joaquin Balaguer
  40. President of the Dominican Republic from 1960 to 1962, from 1966 to 1978, and again from 1986 to 1996.
    • succeeded trujillo
    • followed trijillo until he was killed
    • after trijillo died he took steps to ease the control of the government and restore civil liberties
  41. Leonel Fernández
  42. president of the dominican republic since 2004 term ends 2012
    • held office before from 1996-2000
    • member of the dominican liberation party
  43. La Habana
  44. was one of the provinces of Cuba, prior to being divided into two new provinces of Artemisa and Mayabeque on January 1, 2011.[2] It had 711,066 people in the 2002 census.[3] The largest city was Artemisa (81,209).
  45. José Martí
    • cuban political hero
    • figure in latin american literature
    • poet, essayist, journalist, revolutionary philospher, translator, professor, publisher, political theorist
    • part of the cuban freemasons
    • sybol of cuban independence from spain
    • faught against american expansion into cuba
    • died in military action in 1895 from test poet and political activist faught for the independence of cuba to the end

    19th century. He died a little before spain abandoned the island. He is considered national hero even by fidel castro
  46. Fulgencio Batista
  47. United States-aligned Cuban President, dictator and military leader who served as the leader of Cuba from 1933 to 1944 and from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown as a result of the Cuban Revolution.[4]
  48. Fidel Castro
    president of cuba from 1976-2008
  49. Che Guevara
    commonly known as el Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia within popular culture
  50. Raúl Castro
    brother of fidel castro and current president of cuba
  51. Quito
    capital of ecuador
  52. Guayaquil
    the city is the capital of the Ecuadorian province of Guayas and the seat of the namesake canton
  53. Gabriel García Moreno
  54. 2x president of edu.
    • Assasinated during second term after being elected for 3rd
    • conservative catholic
    • leader in science and education
    • from test
    • This caudillo of ecuador endeavored to collaborate with the catholic church to create a system in accordance with its own dogma. Their reforms consolidated the country and gave him some unity and identity
  55. José María Velasco Ibarra(1893-1979)
    He served as the president of Ecuador from 1934–1935, 1944–1947, 1952–1956, 1960–1961, and 1968-1972. He only served one of those terms without being ousted by the army, from 1952-1956
  56. Rafael Correa
  57. current president of ecuador
    the President of the Republic of Ecuador and was the president pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations. An economist educated in Ecuador, Belgium and the United States, he was elected President in late 2006 and took office in January 2007. In December 2008, he declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate, based on the argument that it had been contracted by corrupt/despotic prior regimes. He then pledged to fight creditors in international courts, and succeeded in reducing the price of the debt letters and continued paying all the debt.[2] He brought Ecuador into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in June 2009.
  58. Las Islas Galápagos
  59. are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed around the equator in the Pacific Ocean, 972 km (525 nmi) west of continental Ecuador, of which they are a part.
  60. Guerra Del Pacífico (1879 – 1883)
  61. chile faught bolivia and peru
    • dispute over mineral rich provinces in peru. Terapara, tacina y arica and bolivian province of antofaasta
    • peru nationalized nitrate in tarapaca and boliva imposed a 10 cent tax on antotagasta nitrate and railroad company (chilean companies)
    • the saltpere war, el saltre
    • chile go peru's tarapaca y temp control over tacna and anawhatever
    • chile won the war
  62. Lima
    capital of peru and largest city
  63. Juan Velasco Alvarado
  64. was a left-leaning Peruvian General who ruled Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title of "President of the Revolutionary Government."
  65. Sendero Luminoso
  66. Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish) is a Maoist guerrilla terrorist organization in Peru.
    Prevers to be called the communist party of peru The Shining Path believed that by imposing a dictatorship of the proletariat, inducing cultural revolution, and eventually sparking world revolution, they could arrive at pure communism
  67. Alberto Fujimori
  68. president of peru from 1990 to 2000
    • credited with fujimorism
    • uprooted terroism(sendero luminoso) in peru
    • restored the macroeconomic stability
  69. Ollanta Humala
  70. current president of peru
    • faught against the sendero lumninoso in army
    • supported by chavez
  71. Víctor Paz Estenssoro (1907 - 2001)
  72. president of bolivia
    • winning in 1951, 1960, 1964, and 1985.
    • In 1941 Víctor Paz Estenssoro co-founded (along with Hernán Siles and others) the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario
  73. Evo Morales
  74. currently 80th president of bolivia He is also the leader of both the Movement for Socialism party (MAS) and the cocalero trade union
  75. El Doctor Francia
  76. intelectual and politician considered the father of Paraguay. He was instrmental in the fight for independence and he was declared the supreme dictator for life of the republic of paraguay
  77. Asunción
  78. capital of paraguay
  79. El guaraní
    indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí–Guaraní subfamily of the Tupian languages. It is one of the official languages of Paraguay (along with Spanish), where it is spoken by the majority of the population, and half of the rural population is monolingual
  80. La guerra de la Triple Alianza
    • paraguar war
    • faugt between paraguay against the triple aliance of argentian, brazil and uruguay
    • more deaths proportionally than any other war
    • killed most of male population in paraguay

    • struggle for power of the rio de la plata region
    • boudary disputes
    • paraguay got ass kicked over 60% of population killed franciso solano lopez president of paraguay during war
  81. Guerra del chaco
  82. faught between bolivia and paraguay over control of the northern part of the gran chaco region(chaco boreal)
    • it was thought to have oil, but no
    • bloodiest south american war in the 20th century
  83. Alfredo Stroessner
  84. dictator of paraguay from 1954-1989
    • 14th longest rule in history other than monarchs
    • bjected to President Federico Chávez' plans to arm the national police and threw him out of office in a coup d'état on May 4, 1954
    • Soon after taking office, Stroessner declared a state of siege and suspended constitutional freedoms. It was renewed every 90 days for the rest of his term, and was only lifted during elections. A devoted anti-Communist, he justified this action as a necessary tool to protect the country. Leader of the colorado party
  85. La central Itaipu
    hydro electric water generator thingy
  86. Frenando Lugo
    current president of paraguay
  87. Montevideo
    capital of uruguay, largest city and chief port
  88. José Batlle y Ordóñez
  89. president of uruguay 1899 -1907
    • member of the colorado party
    • During this time he fought for such things as unemployment compensation (1914), eight-hour workdays (1915), and universal suffrage.
  90. Los tupamaro
    Tupamaros, also known as the MLN-T (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional- Tupamaros or Tupamaros National Liberation Movement), was an urban guerrilla organization in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s supported by Soviet Union. The MLN-T is inextricably linked to its most important leader, Raúl Sendic, and his brand of social politics. José Mujica, current president of Uruguay, was also a member.
  91. José Mujica
    current president of paraguay
  92. Buenos aires
    capital of argentina and largest city
  93. Juan Manuel Rosas
  94. argentine military and political leader
    • elected governer of buenos aires in 1824 - 1835
    • elected leader of argentine conferedacy in 1835-1852
    • forced resignation after battle of caseros
    • strict authority
    • made federal pact
    • pact of some countries or provences or something
  95. Domingo Fausino Sarmiento
  96. 7th president of argentina
    • argentine activist, intellectual and writer and statesmen
    • member of the generation of 1837
    • concerned with education
    • exiled a lot between 1843 -1850
    • greatest work critique of rosas
    • wanted education for women and childre
    • modernized train systems, postal systems and comprehensive education
  97. Juan y evita perón
  98. Perón and his second wife, Eva Duarte, are immensely popular among many Argentines. They are still considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labor, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators. The Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as Peronismo, which in present-day Argentina is represented mainly by the Justicialist Party.
  99. Las islas Malvinas
  100. are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about 250 nautical miles (290 mi; 460 km) from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East
    • Falkland. It is an internally self-governing British Overseas Territory, with the United Kingdom responsible for defence and foreign affairs.
    • Ever since the re-establishment of British rule in 1833, Argentina has claimed sovereignty.
  101. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
    current president of argentina
  102. Santiago de chile
    capital of chile and largest city
  103. Mapuche
    The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina. They constitute a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage. Their influence extended between the Aconcagua River and Chiloé Archipelago and later eastward to the Argentine pampa. The Mapuche make up about 4% of the Chilean population,[3] and are particularly concentrated in Araucanía Region and due to emigration in Santiago
  104. Bernardo O’Higgins
  105. military person who particpated in the invasion of from jose de san martin, who then was named governer of the independent nation of chile. He was exiled to peru but he is still considered a national hero of chile.
  106. Salvador Allende
  107. 26 July 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician who is generally considered the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in Latin America.[1]
    Allende's involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years. As a member of the Socialist Party, he was a senator, deputy and cabinet minister. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency in the 1952, 1958, and 1964 elections. In 1970, he won the presidency in a close three-way race, formally elected by Congress as no candidate had gained a majority.
  108. Augusto Pinochet
  109. (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean army general and dictator who assumed power in a coup d'état on 11 September 1973. He was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean army from 1973 to 1990, president of the Government Junta of Chile from 1973 to 1974 and President of the Republic from 1974 until transferring power to a democratically elected president in 1990.[2]
  110. Sebastián Pinera
    Sebastián Pinera
  111. El terremoto chileno de 2010
    • The 2010 Chile earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile on Saturday, 27 February 2010, at 03:34 local time (06:34 UTC), having a magnitude of 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale, with intense shaking lasting for about three minutes. [5][1][2][6] It ranks as the sixth largest earthquake ever to be recorded by a seismograph. It was felt strongly in six Chilean regions
    • seven weeks after the haitian earthquake
  112. Bogotá
    capital and largest city of columbia
  113. La nueva granada
  114. The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Ecuador, and Venezuela. It was created after the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia. It was later abolished in 1858 when the Granadine Confederation was created.
  115. Rafael Núñez, “el regenerador
    intelectual, politician and poet, a leader of teh 19th century. Helped establish columbia for the first time as a viable country through the establishment of a political economy and a national identity
  116. La “violencia”, el bogotazo
    El Bogotazo (from "Bogotá" and the -azo suffix of violent augmentation) refers to the massive riots that followed the assassination in Bogotá, Colombia of Liberal leader and presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on April 9, 1948 during the government of President Mariano Ospina Pérez. The 10 hour riot left 3,000 to 5,000

    dead and thousands injured, with much of downtown Bogotá destroyed. The aftershock of Gaitan's murder continued extending through the countryside and enhanced a period of violence which had begun ten years prior, in 1930, and was triggered by the fall of the conservative party from government and the rise of the liberals.
  117. Las FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Columbia)
  118. is a Marxist–Leninist revolutionary guerrilla organization based in Colombia which is involved in the ongoing Colombian armed conflict.[12][13][14][15]
    FARC-EP is a peasant army which has proclaimed itself to be a revolutionary agrarian, anti- imperialist Marxist-Leninist organization of Bolivarian inspiration.[12][16][17][18] It claims to represent the rural poor in a struggle against Colombia's wealthier classes, and opposes United States influence in Colombia (e.g. Plan Colombia), neo-imperialism, monopolization of natural resources by multinational corporations, and paramilitary or government violence. It funds itself principally through ransom kidnappings, gold mining[19] and production and distribution of illegal drugs.
  119. Álvaro Uribe
  120. was the 58th President of Colombia, from 2002 to 2010. In August 2010 he was appointed Vice-chairman of the UN panel investigating the Gaza flotilla raid.[1]
  121. Juan Manuel Santos
  122. is a Colombian politician who has been the President of Colombia since 7 August 2010.
  123. Lago Maracaibo
  124. large brackish bay in venezuela
    • largest lake in south america
    • oldest lake in the world
    • major shipping route
    • location of cataumbo lightning
  125. Caracas
    capital and largest city of venezulea
  126. Juan Vicente Gómez
    was a military general and de facto ruler of Venezuela from 1908 until his death in 1935. He was president on three occasions during this time, and ruled as an unelected military strongman for the rest of the era.
  127. Hugo Chávez y el Bolivarianismo
  128. a set of political doctrines that enjoys currency in parts of South America, especially Venezuela. Bolivarianism is named after Simón Bolívar, the 19th c entury Venezuelan general and liberator who led the struggle for independence throughout much of South America.
    • as extolled by Chávez[citation needed], are:
    • • South American economic and political sovereignty (anti-imperialism).
    • • Grassroots political participation of the population via popular votes and referendums (participatory democracy).
    • • Economic self-sufficiency (in food, consumer durables, etc...).
    • • Instilling in people a national ethic of patriotic service.
    • • Equitable distribution of (South America)'s vast natural resources.Eliminating corruption
  129. Brasilia
    capital of brazil
  130. Luiz Inacio lula de Silva
  131. served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2010.
    A founding member of the Workers' Party (PT – Partido dos Trabalhadores), he ran for President three times unsuccessfully, first in the 1989 election, then again in 1994 and again in 1998. Lula achieved victory in the 2002 election, and was inaugurated as President on 1 January 2003. In the 2006 election he was re-elected for a second term as President, which ended on 31 December 2010.[3] He was succeeded by his former Chief of Staff, Dilma Rousseff.
  132. Dilma Rousseff
    president of brazil
  133. Huipil
  134. huipil (from the Nahuatl uipilli, meaning "blouse"`- "dress") is a form of Maya textile and tunic or blouse worn by indigenous Mayan, Zapotec, and other women in central to southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and western Honduras, in the northern part of Central America.
  135. El voseo
    • v
    • I recently read an article about the use of "el voseo" in Argentine Spanish. El voseo "occurs" when, instead of using the Tú form to "tutear" someone, you refer to them as "vos" and conjugate verbs accordingly (see below). While Tú is accepted and understood as the familiar "you," saying "vos" is a more familiar tone than Tú, as the former pronoun and resulting conjugation indicates a shared historical, national and cultural background, i.e., The Rioplatense addresses another Rioplatense using "vos" because they've both grown up using "vos.
  136. Pupusa
    A pupusa (from Pipil pupusaw) is a traditional Salvadoran dish made of thick, hand-made corn tortilla (made using masa de maíz, a maize flour dough used in Latin American cuisine) that is usually filled with a blend of the following: cheese (queso) (usually a soft cheese called Quesillo found in all Central America), cooked pork meat ground to a paste consistency (called chicharrón, not to be confused with fried pork rind
  137. Guaro
  138. Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in South and Central America. It is a clear liquor made from sugar cane, and has a slightly sweeter taste than comparable liquors. Guaro is a popular alcoholic drink in El Salvador, Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras, Guatemala, although in many places the word "guaro" can refer to almost any liquor.
  139. Pernil
    puerto rican roast pork
  140. Gaucho
  141. Gaucho is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina
  142. Ceviche
  143. Ceviche[6] (also spelled cebiche or seviche)[7][8] is a seafood dish popular in the coastal regions of the Americas, especially Central and South America.[3] The dish is typically made from fresh raw fish marinated in citrus juices such as lemon “guerra sucia”
    The Dirty War (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was a period of state-sponsored violence in Argentina from 1976 until 1983. Victims of the violence included several thousand left-wing activists, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas[1] and alleged sympathizers, either proved or suspected.
  144. La coca
  145. Coca, Erythroxylum coca, is a plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant plays a significant role in many traditional Andean cultures (see the Traditional uses section). Coca is best known throughout the world because of its alkaloids, which include cocaine, a powerful stimulant.
    Evo Morales maintains it is not cocaine
  146. El tango
  147. Tango dance originated in the area of the Rio de la Plata (which is between Argentina and Uruguay), and spread to the rest of the world soon after.
  148. Capoeira
    is a Brazilian art form that combines elements of martial arts, sports, and music. It was created in Brazil mainly by descendants of African slaves with
Card Set:
2011-12-13 15:52:19
spanish test

spanish test
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