prcocess tech (systems)

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prcocess tech (systems)
2011-12-13 12:05:23
process tech

systems final
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  1. The 5 basic refining process
    • separation
    • cracking
    • reshaping
    • combining
    • treating
  2. define separation
    either by distillation or absorption; the molecules remain intact and no chemistry takes place
  3. define cracking
    uses cataysts, with or without hydrogen, to break apart large molecules into smaller ones. no matter has been neither created nor destroyed, just rearranged. (stays constant through whole process) as in cat cracking, hydrocracking, and coking
  4. define reshaping
    changes the configuration of individual molecules, as in cat reforming and isomerization
  5. define combining
    makes larger molecules from smaller molecules so they can be used in gasoline, as in alkylation and polymerization
  6. define treating
    uses catalysts and hydrogen to chemically remove contaminants
  7. define specific gravity
    • is a measurment that relates everything to something universally familiar, water.
    • The specific gravity of any liquid is equal to the weight of some volume of that compound divided by the weight of the same volume of water.
  8. many times gases were if there was not enough ready for transportation
    re-injected or flared
  9. IBP=
    • initial boiling point
    • end point
  10. was used to raised the octane number
  11. higher sulfer=
    lower sulfer=
    • higher sulfer=sour crude(1.5 or higher)
    • lower sulfer=sweet crude(.5 or lower)
  12. distillation equipment
    • storage tank
    • charge pump
    • furnace
    • distillation column
  13. what are the purpose of packing and bubble caps
    to enhance the vapor liquid contact
  14. whats a downcomer
    controls level of the trays
  15. the covern at conoco is how big
    300,000 BBLS
  16. define batch processing
    getting the product you want out of a single batch of crude and discarding the unwanted material away
  17. regasification is?
    is used to process LNG back to gas form after transportation
  18. define vaccum?
    lowers boiling points to enhance seperation, it was developed to take straight run residue through one last process to recover lighter ends trapped in it. it allows this to hapen without cracking taking place.
  19. feed is introduced at degrees
  20. in the cracking process weight stays the same but
    the volume increases
  21. in the alky process and the weight stays the same
    volume decreases
  22. too cannot blend into gas so it goes to the alky for processing
    volatile light ends
  23. define tail ends
    a term used to identify the material that is left in the cut that should be in another boiling range
  24. lean oil is in the range
  25. is used in refinery fuel
  26. alky equipment
    • chiller
    • reactor
    • acid separator
    • caustic was
    • 3-distillation columns aslo called fractionators
  27. define caustic wash
    uses caustic soda to neutralize the acids
  28. define alky chiller
    works best at 40 F ,The pressure is high enough to keep the mixture of steam, isobutanes and sulfuric acid in liquid form. sometimes chilling is done right in the reactor
  29. why was cat cracking delevloped
    to get more gas out of the crude refining process
  30. each gas is a chemical and boils at a temperature.
    • single
    • single
  31. to liquefy gas, two conditions are altered to achieve this, they are;
    • mixture has to be cooled below boiling temperature
    • put under a lot of pressure
  32. define phase separation
    low pressure gasses are compressed because of high pressure, the heavier gasses liquefies to be drawn off
  33. caverns in underground salt domes are increased in size by;
    water being pumped in expanding the size
  34. is used to pump liquid propane to the top to be recovered
  35. columns in gas plants have increased the number of and lots of re-boiling and capacity
    • bubble trays
    • refluxing
  36. an unusually shaped column that is a fractionator with a specail counter flow built in is a
    rectified absorber
  37. some lean oils is introduced into the . some may vaporize and go out with overheads.
    rectified absorber
  38. is always reintroduced back in the tower at the position than where it came from
    • reflux
    • lower
  39. purpose of the original design of the : was to produce more product out of the crude they process. to make lighter, smaller, more valuable hydrocarbons out of heavy oils and flasher tops
    cracking process
  40. does continuous operation also add to the amount of raw materials converted in a process?
    yes, it allows you to process thousands of more barrels a day
  41. does cracking allow for cumulative volume to exceed 100%?
    yes, it takes big long chains and breaks them into smaller ones. the smaller ones take up more room allowing this to happen
  42. that are heated, have to have lots of pressure or they come off in a 2 phase flow
    volatile chemicals