prcocess tech (systems)
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The 5 basic refining process
either by distillation or absorption; the molecules remain intact and no chemistry takes place
uses cataysts, with or without hydrogen, to break apart large molecules into smaller ones. no matter has been neither created nor destroyed, just rearranged. (stays constant through whole process) as in cat cracking, hydrocracking, and coking
changes the configuration of individual molecules, as in cat reforming and isomerization
makes larger molecules from smaller molecules so they can be used in gasoline, as in alkylation and polymerization
uses catalysts and hydrogen to chemically remove contaminants
define specific gravity
- is a measurment that relates everything to something universally familiar, water.
- The specific gravity of any liquid is equal to the weight of some volume of that compound divided by the weight of the same volume of water.
many times gases were if there was not enough ready for transportation
re-injected or flared
- initial boiling point
- end point
was used to raised the octane number
- higher sulfer=sour crude(1.5 or higher)
- lower sulfer=sweet crude(.5 or lower)
- storage tank
- charge pump
- distillation column
what are the purpose of packing and bubble caps
to enhance the vapor liquid contact
whats a downcomer
controls level of the trays
the covern at conoco is how big
define batch processing
getting the product you want out of a single batch of crude and discarding the unwanted material away
is used to process LNG back to gas form after transportation
lowers boiling points to enhance seperation, it was developed to take straight run residue through one last process to recover lighter ends trapped in it. it allows this to hapen without cracking taking place.
feed is introduced at degrees
in the cracking process weight stays the same but
the volume increases
in the alky process and the weight stays the same
too cannot blend into gas so it goes to the alky for processing
volatile light ends
define tail ends
a term used to identify the material that is left in the cut that should be in another boiling range
lean oil is in the range
is used in refinery fuel
- acid separator
- caustic was
- 3-distillation columns aslo called fractionators
define caustic wash
uses caustic soda to neutralize the acids
define alky chiller
works best at 40 F ,The pressure is high enough to keep the mixture of steam, isobutanes and sulfuric acid in liquid form. sometimes chilling is done right in the reactor
why was cat cracking delevloped
to get more gas out of the crude refining process
each gas is a chemical and boils at a temperature.
to liquefy gas, two conditions are altered to achieve this, they are;
- mixture has to be cooled below boiling temperature
- put under a lot of pressure
define phase separation
low pressure gasses are compressed because of high pressure, the heavier gasses liquefies to be drawn off
caverns in underground salt domes are increased in size by;
water being pumped in expanding the size
is used to pump liquid propane to the top to be recovered
columns in gas plants have increased the number of and lots of re-boiling and capacity
an unusually shaped column that is a fractionator with a specail counter flow built in is a
some lean oils is introduced into the . some may vaporize and go out with overheads.
is always reintroduced back in the tower at the position than where it came from
purpose of the original design of the : was to produce more product out of the crude they process. to make lighter, smaller, more valuable hydrocarbons out of heavy oils and flasher tops
does continuous operation also add to the amount of raw materials converted in a process?
yes, it allows you to process thousands of more barrels a day
does cracking allow for cumulative volume to exceed 100%?
yes, it takes big long chains and breaks them into smaller ones. the smaller ones take up more room allowing this to happen
that are heated, have to have lots of pressure or they come off in a 2 phase flow
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