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Archaea is split into what two major groups?
Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota
Archaea share many characteristics with what two categories?
Bacteria and Eukarya
Which major group is Nanoarchaeum equitans part of?
What do both the mitochondrion and hydrogenosome specialize in?
chemotrophic energy metabolism
What occurs in Mitochondrion?
Respiration (citric acid cycle/TCA cycle) and oxidative phosphorylation occur here
Similar size to mitochondria, however, lacks TCA cycle enzymes and cristae. Oxidation of pyruvate to H2, CO2 and acetate
What size is nanarchaeum equitans?
0.4 um and it contains one of the smallest genomes known
- 1. inhabit temperature extremes
- 2. most cultured representatives are hyperthermophiles
- 3. other representatives found in extreme cold environments
contains a membrane enclosed nucleus and several other organelles (mitochondria, golgi complex, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticula, microtubules, and microfilaments)
Chlorophyll containing organelle found in phototrophic eukaryotes
The lumen of the chloroplast is called what?
What does the stroma contain?
Large amounts of RubisCO
RubisCO is the key enzyme in what?
What is golgi complex? What happens in the golgi complex?
Stacks of membrane distinct from, but functioning in concert with, the ER. It modifies products of the ER destined for secretion.
- 1. Membrane enclosed compartments
- 2. Contain various digestive enzymes used for hydrolysis
- 3. Allow for lytic activity to occur within the cell without damaging other cellular components
What are peroxisomes?
Oxidize various compounds (alcohols, fatty acids, toxins) Also funtion in synthesis of bile salts.
Most fungi are multicellular, forming a network of what?
Hyphae grow together to form compact tufts called what?
Hyphae that extend above the surface can produce asexual spores called what?
Heritable change in DNA sequence that can lead to a change in phenotype (observable properties of an organism)
A strain of any cell or virus differing from parental strain in geotype (nucleotide sequence of genome)
Define point mutations
- 1. Mutations that cnage only one base pair
- 2. Can lead to single amino acid change in a protein or no change at all
Define silent mutation
Does not affect amino acid sequence
Define missense mutation
amino acid changed; polypeptide altered
Define nonsense mutation
codon becomes stop codon; polypeptide is incomplete
Define frameshift mutations
- 1. Deletions or insertions that result in a shift in the reading frame
- 2. Often result in complete loss of gene function
Strain in which original phenotype that was changed in the mutant is restored
Name the 1 type of revertant and define
Same-site revertant: mutation restoration activity is at the same site as original mutation
What are the 6 techniques used to alter genetic material in lab?
- Restriction enzymes
- Gel electrophoresis
- Nucleic acid hybridization
- Nucleic acid probes
- Molecular cloning
- Cloning vectors
Define restriction enzymes
recognize specific DNA sequences and cut DNA at those sites
Explain purple phototrophic bacteria
- 1. They carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis; no oxygen evolved
- 2. Contain bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoid pigments
Explain purple nonsulfur bacteria
- 1. Most can grow aerobically in the dark as chemoorganotrophs
- 2. Some can also grow anaerobically in the dark using fermentative or anaerobic respiration
- 3. Most can grow photoheterotrophically
Explain hydrogen oxidizing bacteria
Most can grow autotrophically with H2 as sole electron donor and O2 as electron acceptor
- Straight or curved rods with polar flagella
- obligate aerobes
- Play important roles in production of buttermilk, silage, and other products
- Some species are pathogenic
genera of dairy significance
Endospore-forming gram positive bacteria
- generally found in soils
- endospores are advantageous for soil microorganisms
- Lack a respiratory chain, anaerobic
- Some clostridia perform stickland reactions
- Mainly found in anaerobic pockets in the soil
- Also live in mammalian intestinal tract
- Some are pathogenic; others cause diseases such as botulism, tetanus, and gangrene
metabolism of pair of amino acids
Actinobacteria: propionic acid bacteria
valuable for antibiotics and certain fermented dairy products
Propionic Acid Bacteria
- first discovered in swiss cheese
- gram-positive anaerobes
Streptomyces, filamentous, gram-positive bacteria
- Over 500 species of streptomyces are recognized
- Streptomyces spores are called conidia
- Primarily soil microorganisms, responsible for earthy odor of soil (geosmins)
- Strict aerobes that produce many extracellular enzymes
- 50% of all isolated streptomyces produce antibiotics
- Over 500 distinct antibiotics produced by streptomyces
- Key genera: synechococcus, Oscillatoria, Nostoc
- Oxygenic phototrophs
- Budding bacterium
- Facultative aerobic chemoorganotroph
- Priarily aquatic
- Extensive cell compartmentalization including a membrane enclosed nuclear structure
gram-negative, motile, and tightly coiled
- Majority are human or animal pathogens
- Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease
What is the causitive agent of Lyme disease?
- Separates DNA molecules based on size
- Gels can be stained with ethidium bromide and DNA can be visualized under UV light
- recognize specific DNA sequences and cut DNA at those sites
- Essential for in vitro DNA manipulation
- Sticky ends or blunt ends
What type of gel do you stain with in gel electrophoresis?
Nucleic acid hybridization
Base pairing of single strands of DNA or RNA from two different sources to give a hybrid double helix
Nucleic Acid Probe
Segment of single stranded DNA that is used in hybridization and has a predetermined identity
Hybridization procedure where DNA is in the gel and probe is RNA or DNA
isolation and incorporation of a piece of DNA into a vector so it can replicated and manipulated
Most vectors are derived from what?
Plasmids or viruses
DNA is generally inserted how?
- enzyme that joins two DNA molecules
- works with sticky or blunt ends
Site directed mutagenesis
- Performed in vitro and introduces mutations at a precise location
- can be used to assess the activity of specific amino acids in a protein
- Structural biologists have gained significant insight using this tool
encode proteins that are easy to detect and assay
promoters or coding sequences of genes of interest can be swapped with those of reporter genes to elucidate gene regulation under various conditions
Plasmids as cloning vectors
plasmids are natural vectors and have useful properties as cloning vectors
- common cloning vector
- contains ampicillin resistance and lacZ gene
- contains polylinker (multiple cloning site) within lacZ gene
blue colonies do not have vector with foreign DNA inserted
White colonies have foreign DNA inserted
- LacZ gene is inactivated by insertion of foreign DNA
- inactivated lacZ cannot process Xgal; blue color does not develop