anatomy final

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  1. What is the autonomic nervous system?
    all the automatic functions in a body (breathing)
  2. Explain the symathetic nervous system and whats it intervated by.
    SNS- fight or flight response, longest lasting, uses adrenilin.

    Innervated by- sweat glands and blood vessels
  3. Explain the Parasympathetic nervous system?
    • The "rest and digest" response (relaxation)
  4. What are the neurotransmitters used by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
    Ach. (most common, colonergic receptor)


  5. Visceral is what?
  6. Somatic is what?
    general body ( muscles, bones, ect)
  7. Explain Efferent and Afferent pathways.
    efferent- motor neurons (out going signals)

    afferent- sensory neurons (incoming signals)
  8. Explain the Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. (what they include)
    CNS- Only brain and spinal cord

    PNS- everything else including spinal and cranial nerves
  9. Name 3 neurotransmitters.
    ACH- most common

    Norepinepherine/ Epinepherine- adrenalin

    Cortisol- steroid hormone
  10. What is the cholinergic and adrenergic receptors?
    Cholinergic- Achetocholine (ach.)

    Adrenergic- Adrenaline
  11. Where is the adrenal gland located?
    sits on top of kidney
  12. What does the Medula do?
    makes adrenaline
  13. What does the cortex do?
    makes steroid hormones
  14. What are your gerneral senses (2), and what are your SPECIAL senses (5)?
    General- touch, pain, ect.

    Special- hearing, smell, taste, balance, sight.
  15. What hormone is produced that tells you that your in pain?
  16. Define refered pain.
    sensation of pain on the bodys surface, coming from another area.
  17. What are endorphins/ enkephalins?
    pain relievers made by the body.
  18. Explain taste buds and can they regenerate?
    tiny neuroreceptors that CAN regenerate!
  19. Name 5 primary taste sensations.
    sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umammi.
  20. Who have a better sense of smell?
  21. What is the approx. amount of odors we can smell?
  22. Which cranial nerve is in charge of smell?
  23. What is the Auricle?
    outter ear.
  24. What is the Tympanic membrane?
    ear drum
  25. What is the auditory canal?
    ear hole
  26. What is the Cochlea?
    fluid filled part of the inner ear, looks like a sea shell.
  27. What is the outter, middle and inner ear chambers?
  28. What is Malleous, incus, and stapes?
    ear bones
  29. What is the oval window?
    slopes into vestibular apparatus
  30. What are sensory hairs?
    equilibrium and hearing
  31. Define Decibel.
    unit of sound, volume
  32. What is an ear infection and where is it located?
    inflamation of the ear canal, starts in middle ear in the connection to the eustation tube.
  33. What is equilibrium and what does it conist of (4)?

    semicircular ducts, vestibule, sensory hairs, otolithis (tiny stone that sits on sensory hair)
  34. Define Sclera.
    tough outter white part of eye
  35. Define cornea?
    clear portion of sclera.
  36. Define iris.
    colored smooth muscle that controls pupil
  37. Define pupil.
    black opening in eye that allows light to come in.
  38. Define ciliary body.
    makes aquaious humor
  39. define choroid.
    dark vascular layer in eye (thin line)
  40. Define retina.
    extention of optic nerve on back of eye
  41. Define lacrimal apparatus.
    tear glands and ducts
  42. Define aqueous humor.
    clear fluid in the anterior and posterior chambers of eye
  43. Define vitreous humor (body).
    gell that fills the eye
  44. Define lens.
    focuses light on back of retina
  45. Define rods.
    black with grey.... used for night vision
  46. Define cones.
    color receptors
  47. Define optic disc.
    the eyes blind spot
  48. Define macula lutea and fovea centralis.
    sights sharpest vision
  49. Define ora serrata.
    anterior attachment of retina, serrated line!!!!
  50. Where is the visual center of the brain?? (lobe)
    occipital lobe
  51. What is the conjunctiva?
    thin mucus membrane that lines the eyelid and anterior portion of eye.
  52. Where are the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye located?
    A- cornea to iris

    P- iris to lens and virtious body
  53. What is the optic chiasm?
    Where the optic nerves cross behind the eyes
  54. What is glaucoma?
    the inablility to drain the eyes of aqueous humor, blindness occures
  55. What is Macular degeneration?
    The loss of central vision.
  56. What are cataracts?
    clouding of the lens in an eye
  57. What is Myopia?
    being near sighted
  58. What is Hyperopia?
    being far sighted
  59. What is a detached retina?
    thin layer of retina detaches and blindness occures
  60. What is Conjunctivitis?
    inflammation of the conjunctiva, (pink eye)
Card Set:
anatomy final
2011-12-13 19:00:12
anatomy final 201

dr wissman final notes
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