ANTH 120 Final 1.txt

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ANTH 120 Final 1.txt
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Final Study Guide
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  1. 1. Types�by sex, age, common interest
    • define, characteristics of Nonkinship (Interest) Group (Membership)Organization:
    • 1- Group: membership; belong to it or do not.
    • 2- Member: depend on interest commonly shared purpose.
    • 3- all org. have formal institutional structure.
    • 4- clearly discernible sense of mutual pride & belonging.
    • - vary in size(small/big) or social significance(poor/rich)
  2. Voluntary vs nonvoluntary(membership):
    • - In US, one can join any group.
    • - Qualification for membership:
    • 1. Universally ascribed- born with qualification; acquire automatically.
    • 2. Variably ascribed- depend on gender, age; certain requirements.
    • 3. Achieved ascribed- acquire qualification for doing something
    • - Voluntary assoc: org which u have choice to join or not.
    • (ex) regional assoc, ethic org, military org, secretive assoc, political party, etc.
    • - In US, required qualities are achieved rather than ascribed/determined by birth.
    • - Larger, diverse soc=more volunt assoc.
    • Bring together people of common goal/interest/qualification; give opportunity for social goal/self-improvement, achieve status/influence.
  3. age grade vs age set: non-voluntary (age set, unisex)
    • - age terms: �Age category�, �age grade�, �age set�.
    • - [Age category] culturally defined category based on age used to define life cycle, such as infant/youth/teen..
    • - [Age grade] social category/status based on age range; category of people in particular distinguished age range
    • - [Age set] social group defined by those who share same status and are recognizable group; group of persons of around same age/sex who move through some or all of life stages together; another way of holding society together; cut across kin line.
    • (ex) Nyakyusa (pastoral)-boys in certain age take cattle and herd, get to know them well, establish age-set village.
    • - [Unisex association] usually males; men group; male superiority; not much women group b/c usually male dominant in kinship, property or in politics; most anthropologists were men - more men goes to field; also b/c of menstruation of women(unclean)
    • (ex) boy/girl scouts
    • 2. Social Stratification
    • - Stratified society: institutionalized/socially structured unequal access to econ. resources & prestige.
  4. Egalitarian societies:
    • - �equal�-unstratified soc; no structures unequal access to econ resources, available to all; most horticulture, hunter/gatherer give good away/share-don�t get prestige from wealth (attain status by generosity).
    • - Not everyone�s the same; depend on age, better skill, number of prestigious positions is adjusted to fit the number of qualified candidates, etc- not like in US-not relate to economic difference.
  5. Rank societies:
    • - Partially stratified; no structured unequal access to resources but there�s structure unequal access to econ positions.
    • - Chief is a rank that only certain members are eligible for.
    • - Redistribution by chief=wealth belong to group.
    • - Chief not excused from labor; don�t have greater access to econ resource; position is partially hereditary; maintain prestige by generosity.
  6. Stratified societies�class, caste, slavery, open class society`
    • - Class soc like US; structure unequal access to prestige and econ resource.
    • - not all people have same chance to benefits; completely stratified.
    • - 2 basic systems:
    • ?class sys: category of person who have same chance to acquire econ resource & prestige. (ex) 1-top class(Bill Gates), 2-newly rich, 3-upper-middle class(active in civic affair), 4-lower-middle class(white collar), 5-upper-lower(poor but honest worker), 6-lower-lower(poor). US is open class society (with effort one can move up class; easiest way to do this is university edu); US strong tendency to stay in same class b/c feel comfortable.
    • ?Caste sys: position in soc is completely determined by birth; can�t move up-must marry one within same caste (ex)india-economic: top class prevent below gp from rising. US-caste like sys on African-americans/Asians (can�t move up). Slavery-don�t own their own labor; often blacks; slave had different rights; w/o them, no philosophy; once freed can assimilate in dominant society; �bad luck�; means of cheap labor in US; as need for slave grew needed justification on slavery-inferiority.
  7. Possible factors leading to emergence of social stratification
    • - Soc stratification increase=level productivity increase=larger production of surplus(initial of stratific)=greater complexity of distribution sys
    • - Conflict of who controls surplus-determined by higher power; usually producers=low status; unequal power.
    • Political Organization
    • 1. Definition of Political Organization
    • process of who gets what, when and how; all societies, concerned with distribution of rewards; political competition always going on; waged over specific goals; one side always benefits more than others
  8. - [Political process]
    decision making & distribution of rewards.
  9. - [Political decision making]:
    conflicting idea how community�s life should be decided; issues vary but decisions benefit people in that society more than others; kinds of decisions, how competitive for influence, rewards; polit competition(win-prestige) not much in hunt/gathering soc.
  10. - 3 areas of study:
    • ?Access: �who�s allowed to participate/access to political competition/decision�; restrict to formal(commonly age, gender)/informal(women can be powerful) needs; all soc has formal particip; US-formal (should be citizen, age, register.. to vote); religious figure often restricted in polit particip; higher restriction as soc is more complex.
    • ?Leadership (how it�s determined; authority, power): who wins over others and how? highly idiosyncratic(unique to indiv)-charismatic; bravery, superior strength; success giving people support/better organization; media big influence in leadership/politics.
    • - [Authority] ability to exert influence through personal prestige or status of your office (ex)hunt/gather=opinions respected; certain men have authority but not power.
    • - [Power] ability to exert influence through negative sanction (physical force);
    • ?Rules(variation in political org): there�re always norms/rules of conduct which allow type of political act and prohibit others; limit of political competition; people find advantageous outside rules which can cause conflict; increased conflict lead to rebellion/violence; (ex)Nixon�s water gate; mechanism for prevent rebellion/violence:
    • ?cross cutting tie-help reduce possibility of violence; competing demands for group�s loyalty; disadvantage is that it limit possibility of total unity(unity for war can be achieved but only temporarily).
    • ?recognize authority-who can resolve the prob; (ex)home owner association, police, etc.
  11. - 4 dimension of variation (polit org vary in):
    • ?Specialization: how much they specialize separately from other roles (political role like king, judge, senate..)
    • ?Division of power/authority: concern degree of power/authority is divided among memb of soc; does everyone have equal chance in decision making
    • ?Leadership: what are factors/qualification to gain political authority. Is one born with leadership or is it achieved?
    • ?Organization: what degree of formal org and centralization(is there hierarchy in decision making).
  12. Band:
    relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits common territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically and economically independent; simplest, oldest and most informal; Common in food foragers, egalit, small-scale migratory community(politically autonomous extended fam); gossip may function as leveling device to reduce real/perceived threat of one becoming too dominant. Or one can simply move (mobility) to avoid conflict.
  13. Tribe:
    • range of kin-ordered grps that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose membs share common ancestry, identity, culture, lang, and territory. Uncentralized authority sys; can develop when number of culturally related bands join; larger population, more conflicts; each tribe hav self-governing local community; political org is informal, temporary like band; many times politic authority is clan; leadership in tribe also relative informal.
    • * In band, tribe, politic authority is not centralized, each group is economically/politc autonomous; polit org in kinship, age, common-interest gps; polul small, homogeneous.
  14. Chiefdom:
    regional polity in which 2 or more local grps are organized under single chief(who�s at the head of ranked hierarchy of people); ones closest to chief are officially superior; chiefdom for life usually; chief make final decision, enforce obedience; usually control econ act, typical for chief to redistribute; chiefdom have recognized hierarchy consisting of major, minor authority who control major, minor subdivisions; chiefdoms usually highly unstable-little continuity of gov or religious administration.
  15. State:
    • political institution established to manage, defend a complex, socially stratified soc occupying defined territory; most formal politc sys; state is organized, directed by gov; state vs. nation(people who share collective identity based on common culture, lang, territorial base, history); US=state gov;
    • * more complex soc=more popul, tech adv, specialization of laber/trade=surplus=more opportunity; polit authority, power are concentrated in single indiv(chief) or in a body of indiv(state).
  16. Power
    ability to exert influence, supported by negative sanctions, esp. rorce
  17. Authority
    ability to exert influence, supported by one�s personal prestige or status of one�s office.
  18. - Sanctions:
    externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms.
  19. - Internalized control:
    cultural control(control thru beliefs and values deeply internalized in minds of indiv), social control(external control thru open coercion??).
  20. - Externalized control:
    b/c internalized control is not wholly sufficient even in bands, tribes, every society develops externalized social control(sanctions); positive/neg/formal/informal sanctions;
  21. formal sanction(laws)
    always organized b/c attempt to precisely, explicitly regulate people�s behavior; informal sanction emphasize cultural control and are diffuse in nature.
  22. [posit sanction]-
    a reward for appropriate or admirable behavior that conforms with the social norms. Common positive sanctions include praise and granting honors or awards.
  23. [neg sanction]
    - a punishment for violations of social norms. In large-scale societies, formal negative sanctions usually take the form of fines or prison sentences. In small-scale societies, informal negative sanction are more commonly used against those whose behavior is unacceptable.
  24. Resolution of conflict�types and characteristics
    • - violence within political unit(crime) usually settled peacefully.
    • - violence between 2 grps of people with different political view but no effective procedure�warfare.
    • - if there�s no procedure, if it fails, violence/war occur.
  25. peaceful methods:
    compromise, negotiation; in modern industrial state have formal authority sys to deal with any disputes; operate according to codified law(written rules-precise, explicit-sometimes need specialists to interpret this). Formal institution like penal sys or police; only state has right to enforce certain procedure.
  26. - all soc has peaceful, regularized way of handling dispute:
    �universality of law�(can be informal/formal).
  27. - peaceful resolving:
    ?community action: may not have formal power but community wants it solved; no power but prestige (eskimo-small grp, simple soc org, can occur in informal community); settle conflict as fast as possible to maintain harmony; informal adjudication(unbiased 3rd party mediate ultimate decision).
  28. - peaceful also involve: oath, ordeal:
    • [oath] call upon deity to bear witness on truth.
    • [ordeal] test; determine guilt/innocence; painful test under supernatural control; common types are skalding(boiling water and put ur hand in it, examine blisters-anxiety=sever blister), could use poison, water ordeal; more likely found in complex, where has well-developed political institutions but w/o secure power.
  29. - codified law & court:
    US use it, also used in modern industrial states but not limited; law/courts-examine witness(motive, intent is important); �shawnty court�-if sanity is proved one�s innocent-could involve physical mutilation as punishment; small hunt/gather soc don�t need formal law; bigger, heterogeneous, stratified soc need formal law.
  30. violent methods definition:
    if peaceful method not available or break down violence occur; between political entity in form of warfare; antagonists try to control situate to gain objective or keep someone else from getting it; aim is to try to control sys, to get something or prevent others from it.
  31. - violent methods:
    • ?feuding: continually reoccurring situations between family for desire and revenge; for desire, revenge; responsibility falls on kingrp; if no central authority with enough power, feud can go on forever.
    • ?Raiding: short term use of force usually prepared and organized; gain limited objective(steal objects for wealth); led by temporary war chief(not political, only during raid); less emotional(I want this); some soc �raid� has part in econ.
    • ?War: large scale confrontation, large # people; both side planned-they know, declare war; usually among soc with intensive agri/industry-surplus=specialization of professional warriors/military; large scale destruction(collateral damage); horticult also have specializa in warfare(warriors).
    • - there are cultural rules/conducts of war; state soc gov �self-denying pacts� (kill u but no chemical weapon); only give name, rank, serial #. Higher level politic centralization=more sophistication of military, professional army, hierarchy in military leader(chiefdom, state=prof. complex milit; band, tribe=hav soliders but not complex milit); complex politic org=higher casualty rate=more rage war for politic control over others; how often we fight independent of complexity of polit (frequency not relate to how complex, simple soc is); it�s important how we fight.
  32. Leopard skin chief:
    mediator/arbitrator who settles disputes and feuds among the Nuer.
  33. Functions of law:
    • ?provide means of dealing peacefully with conflict. ?regulate indiv, gp conduct.
    • ?prevent/redress/punishes any deviations.
  34. Universality of religion:
    • - all soc hav some type of relig belief; vary w/n soc year to year (earthquake/flood).
    • - even found in Neanderthals-1st to bury the dead.
    • - [supernatural] power that is not of human.
    • - in some soc being ill/sick is due to evil spirit(supernat).
    • - �supernat�-differently used, different belief.
    • - We divide natural/supernat (religion) but it�s not like this in many others; religion is embedded in all aspect of life(religion+secular).
  35. - Theories to account for universality:
    • ?Tylor: compare contemporary religion with ancient religion: soul is beyond physical(dream, death..); �dual existence� of physical/visible body and psychologic/invisible soul; �animism�-intellectual curiosity to things we can�t understand.
    • ?psychological theories: reduce anxiety/uncertainty of all people; threaten to disrupt social grp(major disruptor is Death-belief in afterlife; reassure it�s not the end); disruptors like uncontrollable disaster and general anxiety of death; cause all men to create ritual for social unity to face social disruption (ex)9-11 incident-psychological (people find church)
    • ?sociological theories: why is religion universal-religion is the symbol of social authority; religion stems from society and its needs; it�s the grp/society that make distinction between sacred and common things (not the indiv); any society=considered as something sacred; most sacred obj in any soc is itself; we invent spiritual world as mirror to society.
    • - (ex) totem-symbolize the group; we identify with our own group(grp is very important); affirm group significance; recreate nature of his group in spiritual world.
    • ?others(response to strain/deprivation-combine psyc+socio): religion is the way to respond to strain/deprivation; instability in soc(internal/external), most people turn to religion or vitalization.
    • - [social vitalization] bring in new culture/religion (ex) Christianity=revitalization movement; relative econ/social deprivation cause of stress can develop religious movement; threat of societal breakdown forces people to find new ways to survive by hope-revitalize soc.
  36. 3. . Psychological & Sociological functions:
    • - reduce anxiety.
    • - religion from society and its needs.
  37. a. Types of supernatural forces & beings:
    • - supernat force(no person-like character; [mana]-�luck�, good force inhabited in obj or people; when harvest is good the stones have powerful mana.
    • - mana(can be touched) vs. taboo(not touch b/c cause harm-ex.nuns).
    • - supernat beings:
    • ?non-human origin: gods/spirit; gods can be shape of animal (animal, earth, sun god)-belived to have created themselves then created other gods; some creator of world once world was created they retire, others interested, engaged in day to day (like in US); unnamed spirit(guardians)-some are mischievous(gnome), others evil(demon).
    • ?human origin: ghost/ancestral spirit. When kin grp die, become spirit, remain part of the group; more likely believed these spirits influence the kin group on important decision making.
  38. Monotheism, polytheism:
    [monotheism] belief in one god or goddess-(ex)US, Hindu ; [polytheism] belief in several gods and/or goddesses.
  39. c. Characteristics of supernatural beings:
    personalality/characteristics could relate to child socialization of soc; some are unpredictable/predictable/helpful/punishing/remote/interested.. �nurtured gods�-where parent inconsistent�supernat being also inconsistent; soc with hurtful child-raising practive�gods also malevolent.
  40. *Religion and political complexity:
    • - hierarchy of supernat being: stratification same in supernat; some gods equal, others ranked gods.
    • - supreme god in soc with political sys of 3-4level decision making.
    • - high god found in high levels of political government, dependent on food production rather than food collecting.
    • - gods associated w/ particular clans (serve higher god that clan is in higher status).
    • *Intervention:
    • - when we face things we can�t explain/understand(unjust, causing pain..) we deal with it by intervention of god (disasters due to anger of gods); people can appeal to gods; gods do not intervene in all soc; intervene on moral behavior when there�s inequality; stratified soc (being good=will be rewarded afterlife).
  41. d. Life after death:
    - US (heaven/hell); others-soul return to earth, reborn (reincarnation-justify caste in life).
  42. 5. Variations in religious practices
    • - some perform individually.
    • - most soc have religious intermediary.
  43. Shaman & priest
    • 1) universal healing techniques
    • -[Shaman]: Witch doc/ religious intermed-to cure; part-time; technique vary indiv to indiv, diff from western; uses same mechanisms as psychiatrist as doctors with same result; medium between supernat and human world; usually gets fee;
    • 4 things commonly used:
    • 1. Naming process: disease identified-doc understand case
    • 2. Personality of doc: empathy, genuine interest in patient tend to get better result.
    • 3. Patient�s expectation: higher expect. the better chance of getting better. Longer trip seems more effective.
    • 4. Curing tech: drugs, other techs.. how they(doc)use can diff
    • -[priest]: fulltime specialist; in US priests supported by donations/followers; depend on memorized rituals (one with successful ritual-people prefer); intermediary-saints, virgin mary etc; generally religious intermed in more complex soc with specialization- depend on food production; class stratification; high level of polit integration
  44. b. 12 types of behaviors affecting supernatural- get in touch with supernatural: Wallace�s 12 type:
    • 1. Prayer: distinguished from normal everyday language.
    • 2. Use musical instrum or chant/dance.
    • 3. Physiological experience; drug, fasting, produce feel of euphoria-closer to supernat.
    • 4. Exortation/preaching: people act as intermed-closer to god.
    • 5. Reciting the code: story, myth, codes of moral behave (bible, koran)
    • 6. Simulation: imitate something(voodoo); divination-find cause/solution of prob from supernat (ex-throwing coin to decide, tarot card..).
    • 7. Mana, taboo. (touch-beneficial(mana), avoid-bad(taboo))
    • 8. Eating of sacred meal/feast: funeral food, wedding (symbolic meal..)
    • 9. Some make sacrifice to god-attract god�s will or avoid anger of god. (stop smoking, fast.. persuation)
    • 10. Social function: people meet to address god.
    • 11. Inspiration: god can pick favored people to speak for him. Mark the presence of god.
    • 12. Symbolism: direct representation of deity (arts, statue..) believed to contain supernat power thus very emotional.
  45. 6. Definition of magic
    • - [magic]: How much people feel they can force supernatural to act on their behalf.
    • a. Sorcery & witchcraft: attempt to evoke spirit to harm others.
    • - [sorcery]: Can include material obj and med to evoke supernat; some can be used by anyone or others sorcerers are special, secretive. Can prove with possession; secret part-time specialist.
    • - [witchcraft]: thru thought and action alone. Just lose �trust� of others when accused. Unpopular, old women. �unchristian-believing witchcraft�. Anything that went against the norm-accused for witchcraft(unchristians); occurred in rural areas; Occur in societies without ways of dealing with criminal behavior.
  46. b. Function of Sorcery and Witchcraft
    • -manipulation of supernatural for good or bad pursues
    • -insure fertility of animals, avoid and cure illness
    • - all soc need social control.
    • - Witch, sorcery: usually occur in places that lack formal, judicial authority to deal with criminal (social control); Usually places where there�s no way to deal with anti-social behav
    • 1. Mechanisms of change
    • a. Innovation�primary & secondary:
    • [primary innovation]-creation, invention, chance discovery of completely new idea/method/device; given structure by cultural context.
    • [secondary innovation]-deliberate application.modification of existing idea/method/device. (ex-clay, pottery)
    • b. Diffusion: spread of certain ideas/customs/practices from one culture to another. (ex-metric unit sys, currency..)
    • c. Cultural Loss: abandonment of existing practice/trait. Frequently culture change from accumulation of innovation result in culture loss.
    • d. Acculturation: massive culture change that occurs in soc when it experiences intensive firsthand contact with more powerful soc. (ex)-can occure due to milit conquest, polit/economy expansion, massiv invasion.. [ethnocide]-violent eradication of ethnic gp's collective cultural identity as distinctive people; occurs when dominant soc deliberately sets out to destroy another soc�s cultural heritage.
  47. 2. Reactions to forcible change
    • a. Syncretism: in acculturation, creative blending of indigenous and foreign beliefs and practices into new cultural forms.
    • b. Revitalization movements: efforts for radical cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption and collective feelings of anxiety and despair. (ex)hippies
    • c. Rebellion & Revolution: [rebellion]-organized armed resistance to established gov or authority in power.
    • [revolution]-radical change in soc or culture. In political arena, it involves forced overthrow of an old gov and establishment of completely new one.
    • - political rebellion requires centralized political authority to rebel against; kin-ordered soc (tribe, band) can�t have rebellion or politic revolution.
  48. 3. Modernization�effects of:
    • [modernization]-process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing soc acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial soc.
    • - technological develop, agricultural develop, urbanization, industrialization, telecommunication.
    • - self-determination;helt to illustrate some of problems such changing cultures have met.
    • - globalization in �underdeveloped� world; rapid changes; burden of modernization falls most heavily on women(ignore women�s traditional land rights, employment..)
    • Expressive Culture
    • Definition ofexpressive culture:
    • visual art, theater, myth, story, game sport, festival, movies; Generalized reciprocity; leadership unstratified; The arts; people express themselves creatively in dance, music, song, painting, sculpture, pottery, cloth, storytelling, verse, prose, drama, and comedy.
  49. Universality of expressive culture:
    - most soc used art to give meaningful expression to almost every part of their culture, religion, kinship, ethnic identity.
  50. - significance of expressive culture:
    • 1.way by which culture values and social instit are explored, challenged, upheld.
    • a. explores meaning of daily life: interpreters of life. (ex)writers, musicians..
    • - as soc more secularized, specialized interpreters get more prominent.
    • - good artists force us to question validity of institution; challenge values
    • - sports figure tend to confirm values
    • - Sport=most conservative form of play; has rules
    • - can learn many meaning of daily life.
    • b. Deals with social/cultural conflict in miniature.
    • - Expressive cultures (play/music..) deal with social conflicts in miniature (not real-more easily controllable). It�s powerful.
    • 2. reflects soc
    • Open to all vs. specialists:
    • -Mirror soc institution
    • -exress cult open to everyone. More complex soc= more task specialization, rulers have more power over others. Full time specialists (musician, artists..)
    • - exp cult controlled mostly by specialists.
    • 3. Functions of expressive culture:
    • - myth-offer basic explanation about world, set cultural standard for right behavior; verbal art transmit/preserve culture�s custom/values; any art form which is characteristic of particular soc, may contribute to cohesiveness/solidarity of that soc; may also express political theme, used to influence events, create social change.
    • 4. What it can show us about culture:
    • - can show different worldview, religious beliefs, political ideas, social values, kinship structures, econ relations, historical memory.
    • 5. Visual or pictorial arts; performance arts�verbal, music & dance; play, sports and festivals
    • - show available technique in culture; choice/use of artistic material mirror environ; soc represent object/phenomenon thru art; can learn soc�s primary concern; soc content reflect soc stratification.
    • - art in Egalitarian vs. Stratified:
    • ? [egalit]: ?repetition of simple elements. ?empty/irrelevant spaces. ?symmetric designs. ?unenclosed figure; these unconsciously represent character of soc: convey little polit org, few authority; hunter/gather-simple soc-secure within own group; symmetry(likeness); unenclosed(free access to resource).
    • ? [stratif] ?integration of unlike element. ?very little emptiness. ?asymmetric design.(stratification; boundaries; rules) ?enclosed firue. (virgin Mary enclosing child; everything is enclosing)
    • - can see diversity/inequality/soc differentiation�complex pattern.
    • - interdependent due to specialization-fit together as a whole.
    • [performance art]
    • reflect culture, social org. music-powerful (convey ideas/words)-lyrics important it pull people together; dance can reflect gender/soc org(use body-sexuality; courtship, convey behavior of male, female-usually men emphasize potency, fem emphas seduction), understand soc relation.
    • - (ex) Cinderella-western culture convey soc behavior.
  51. [verbal art]:
    narrative, drama, poetry, incantation, proverb, riddle, word game, folklore, myth, legend, tale.
  52. Types of story-telling:
    • - plaly, sport, festival.
    • � [folklore]-unwritten stories and other artistic traditions of rural people.
    • � [myth]-sacred narrative that explain fundamental of human existence.
    • � [legend]-story about memorable event/figure handed down by tradition and told as true but w/o historical evidence.
    • � [epic]-long, dramatic narrative recounting celebrated deeds of historic/legendary hero.
    • � [tale]-creative narrative that�s recognized as fiction for entertainment but also draw moral/teach a practical lesson.
    • -there are plays in all soc; play suspend real world rules and assume play rules; deliberately set apart with real world;formal sys of play(sports-all costume, display, ceremony are like play); play is a chance behaviors can be tested to real world like games.
    • - forager soc-lern to hunt by playing(game); dolls, cooking game for nurturing.
    • - sport: include physical contest; mostly young men preparing adult world(hunt, negotiation..).
  53. - 3types of play:
    • ?children�s play: social org; orruc in all soc; universal practice for adult role.
    • ?game:(can include children�s game, board game, activity):
    • - physical skill(hunt/fish):-competitive.
    • - game of chance(survival):
    • ?game of strategy(chess):-advanced technique, class stratified soc; high risk-taker, competitive.
    • - in US can find all 3 types (ex)football.
  54. Cultural pluralism:
    • - common for 2 or more neighbor ethnic group or nation to draw together in loose political union while maintain their particular cultural identity.
    • - cultural pluralism is still more common than multiculturalism.
  55. Definition of religion:
    any set of attitude/belief/practice that pertain to supernatural power; organized sys of ideas about spiritual sphere or supernatural, along with associated ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and/or influence aspects of universe otherwise beyond their control.
  56. 2. Ethnocentrism:
    belief that the ways of one�s own culture are the only proper ones.- to overcome cultural superiority complex, pluralistic soc may hav to develop common superstructure w/ ideology that binds diff peoples together in collective identity and destiny.
  57. �3. Idea of One or Single World Culture:
  58. �4. Structural Violence:
    physical and/or psychological harm(repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, premature death) caused by impersonal, exploitative and unjust social, political, economic sys.
  59. �Videos [Yanomami]:
    - reciprocity is important. (exchange critical)- brother-in-law is important.- white feather means peace.
  60. *festival:
    secular celebration; can include important person/event; antistructure; value/social relation can taken apart symbolically (sacrifice); provide context of enactment of main symbol of soc; re-enforce value of soc(4th of july) (ex)honor self-sacrifice on memorial day.- joke, cartoon also express cult

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