define, characteristics of Nonkinship (Interest) Group (Membership)Organization:
1- Group: membership; belong to it or do not.
2- Member: depend on interest commonly shared purpose.
3- all org. have formal institutional structure.
4- clearly discernible sense of mutual pride & belonging.
- vary in size(small/big) or social significance(poor/rich)
Voluntary vs nonvoluntary(membership):
- In US, one can join any group.
- Qualification for membership:
1. Universally ascribed- born with qualification; acquire automatically.
2. Variably ascribed- depend on gender, age; certain requirements.
3. Achieved ascribed- acquire qualification for doing something
- Voluntary assoc: org which u have choice to join or not.
(ex) regional assoc, ethic org, military org, secretive assoc, political party, etc.
- In US, required qualities are achieved rather than ascribed/determined by birth.
- Larger, diverse soc=more volunt assoc.
Bring together people of common goal/interest/qualification; give opportunity for social goal/self-improvement, achieve status/influence.
age grade vs age set: non-voluntary (age set, unisex)
- age terms: �Age category�, �age grade�, �age set�.
- [Age category] culturally defined category based on age used to define life cycle, such as infant/youth/teen..
- [Age grade] social category/status based on age range; category of people in particular distinguished age range
- [Age set] social group defined by those who share same status and are recognizable group; group of persons of around same age/sex who move through some or all of life stages together; another way of holding society together; cut across kin line.
(ex) Nyakyusa (pastoral)-boys in certain age take cattle and herd, get to know them well, establish age-set village.
- [Unisex association] usually males; men group; male superiority; not much women group b/c usually male dominant in kinship, property or in politics; most anthropologists were men - more men goes to field; also b/c of menstruation of women(unclean)
- �equal�-unstratified soc; no structures unequal access to econ resources, available to all; most horticulture, hunter/gatherer give good away/share-don�t get prestige from wealth (attain status by generosity).
- Not everyone�s the same; depend on age, better skill, number of prestigious positions is adjusted to fit the number of qualified candidates, etc- not like in US-not relate to economic difference.
- Partially stratified; no structured unequal access to resources but there�s structure unequal access to econ positions.
- Chief is a rank that only certain members are eligible for.
- Redistribution by chief=wealth belong to group.
- Chief not excused from labor; don�t have greater access to econ resource; position is partially hereditary; maintain prestige by generosity.
Stratified societies�class, caste, slavery, open class society`
- Class soc like US; structure unequal access to prestige and econ resource.
- not all people have same chance to benefits; completely stratified.
- 2 basic systems:
?class sys: category of person who have same chance to acquire econ resource & prestige. (ex) 1-top class(Bill Gates), 2-newly rich, 3-upper-middle class(active in civic affair), 4-lower-middle class(white collar), 5-upper-lower(poor but honest worker), 6-lower-lower(poor). US is open class society (with effort one can move up class; easiest way to do this is university edu); US strong tendency to stay in same class b/c feel comfortable.
?Caste sys: position in soc is completely determined by birth; can�t move up-must marry one within same caste (ex)india-economic: top class prevent below gp from rising. US-caste like sys on African-americans/Asians (can�t move up). Slavery-don�t own their own labor; often blacks; slave had different rights; w/o them, no philosophy; once freed can assimilate in dominant society; �bad luck�; means of cheap labor in US; as need for slave grew needed justification on slavery-inferiority.
Possible factors leading to emergence of social stratification
- Soc stratification increase=level productivity increase=larger production of surplus(initial of stratific)=greater complexity of distribution sys
- Conflict of who controls surplus-determined by higher power; usually producers=low status; unequal power.
1. Definition of Political Organization
process of who gets what, when and how; all societies, concerned with distribution of rewards; political competition always going on; waged over specific goals; one side always benefits more than others
- [Political process]
decision making & distribution of rewards.
- [Political decision making]:
conflicting idea how community�s life should be decided; issues vary but decisions benefit people in that society more than others; kinds of decisions, how competitive for influence, rewards; polit competition(win-prestige) not much in hunt/gathering soc.
- 3 areas of study:
?Access: �who�s allowed to participate/access to political competition/decision�; restrict to formal(commonly age, gender)/informal(women can be powerful) needs; all soc has formal particip; US-formal (should be citizen, age, register.. to vote); religious figure often restricted in polit particip; higher restriction as soc is more complex.
?Leadership (how it�s determined; authority, power): who wins over others and how? highly idiosyncratic(unique to indiv)-charismatic; bravery, superior strength; success giving people support/better organization; media big influence in leadership/politics.
- [Authority] ability to exert influence through personal prestige or status of your office (ex)hunt/gather=opinions respected; certain men have authority but not power.
- [Power] ability to exert influence through negative sanction (physical force);
?Rules(variation in political org): there�re always norms/rules of conduct which allow type of political act and prohibit others; limit of political competition; people find advantageous outside rules which can cause conflict; increased conflict lead to rebellion/violence; (ex)Nixon�s water gate; mechanism for prevent rebellion/violence:
?cross cutting tie-help reduce possibility of violence; competing demands for group�s loyalty; disadvantage is that it limit possibility of total unity(unity for war can be achieved but only temporarily).
?recognize authority-who can resolve the prob; (ex)home owner association, police, etc.
- 4 dimension of variation (polit org vary in):
?Specialization: how much they specialize separately from other roles (political role like king, judge, senate..)
?Division of power/authority: concern degree of power/authority is divided among memb of soc; does everyone have equal chance in decision making
?Leadership: what are factors/qualification to gain political authority. Is one born with leadership or is it achieved?
?Organization: what degree of formal org and centralization(is there hierarchy in decision making).
relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits common territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically and economically independent; simplest, oldest and most informal; Common in food foragers, egalit, small-scale migratory community(politically autonomous extended fam); gossip may function as leveling device to reduce real/perceived threat of one becoming too dominant. Or one can simply move (mobility) to avoid conflict.
range of kin-ordered grps that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose membs share common ancestry, identity, culture, lang, and territory. Uncentralized authority sys; can develop when number of culturally related bands join; larger population, more conflicts; each tribe hav self-governing local community; political org is informal, temporary like band; many times politic authority is clan; leadership in tribe also relative informal.
* In band, tribe, politic authority is not centralized, each group is economically/politc autonomous; polit org in kinship, age, common-interest gps; polul small, homogeneous.
regional polity in which 2 or more local grps are organized under single chief(who�s at the head of ranked hierarchy of people); ones closest to chief are officially superior; chiefdom for life usually; chief make final decision, enforce obedience; usually control econ act, typical for chief to redistribute; chiefdom have recognized hierarchy consisting of major, minor authority who control major, minor subdivisions; chiefdoms usually highly unstable-little continuity of gov or religious administration.
political institution established to manage, defend a complex, socially stratified soc occupying defined territory; most formal politc sys; state is organized, directed by gov; state vs. nation(people who share collective identity based on common culture, lang, territorial base, history); US=state gov;
* more complex soc=more popul, tech adv, specialization of laber/trade=surplus=more opportunity; polit authority, power are concentrated in single indiv(chief) or in a body of indiv(state).
ability to exert influence, supported by negative sanctions, esp. rorce
ability to exert influence, supported by one�s personal prestige or status of one�s office.
externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms.
- Internalized control:
cultural control(control thru beliefs and values deeply internalized in minds of indiv), social control(external control thru open coercion??).
- Externalized control:
b/c internalized control is not wholly sufficient even in bands, tribes, every society develops externalized social control(sanctions); positive/neg/formal/informal sanctions;
always organized b/c attempt to precisely, explicitly regulate people�s behavior; informal sanction emphasize cultural control and are diffuse in nature.
a reward for appropriate or admirable behavior that conforms with the social norms. Common positive sanctions include praise and granting honors or awards.
- a punishment for violations of social norms. In large-scale societies, formal negative sanctions usually take the form of fines or prison sentences. In small-scale societies, informal negative sanction are more commonly used against those whose behavior is unacceptable.
Resolution of conflict�types and characteristics
- violence within political unit(crime) usually settled peacefully.
- violence between 2 grps of people with different political view but no effective procedure�warfare.
- if there�s no procedure, if it fails, violence/war occur.
compromise, negotiation; in modern industrial state have formal authority sys to deal with any disputes; operate according to codified law(written rules-precise, explicit-sometimes need specialists to interpret this). Formal institution like penal sys or police; only state has right to enforce certain procedure.
- all soc has peaceful, regularized way of handling dispute:
�universality of law�(can be informal/formal).
- peaceful resolving:
?community action: may not have formal power but community wants it solved; no power but prestige (eskimo-small grp, simple soc org, can occur in informal community); settle conflict as fast as possible to maintain harmony; informal adjudication(unbiased 3rd party mediate ultimate decision).
- peaceful also involve: oath, ordeal:
[oath] call upon deity to bear witness on truth.
[ordeal] test; determine guilt/innocence; painful test under supernatural control; common types are skalding(boiling water and put ur hand in it, examine blisters-anxiety=sever blister), could use poison, water ordeal; more likely found in complex, where has well-developed political institutions but w/o secure power.
- codified law & court:
US use it, also used in modern industrial states but not limited; law/courts-examine witness(motive, intent is important); �shawnty court�-if sanity is proved one�s innocent-could involve physical mutilation as punishment; small hunt/gather soc don�t need formal law; bigger, heterogeneous, stratified soc need formal law.
violent methods definition:
if peaceful method not available or break down violence occur; between political entity in form of warfare; antagonists try to control situate to gain objective or keep someone else from getting it; aim is to try to control sys, to get something or prevent others from it.
- violent methods:
?feuding: continually reoccurring situations between family for desire and revenge; for desire, revenge; responsibility falls on kingrp; if no central authority with enough power, feud can go on forever.
?Raiding: short term use of force usually prepared and organized; gain limited objective(steal objects for wealth); led by temporary war chief(not political, only during raid); less emotional(I want this); some soc �raid� has part in econ.
?War: large scale confrontation, large # people; both side planned-they know, declare war; usually among soc with intensive agri/industry-surplus=specialization of professional warriors/military; large scale destruction(collateral damage); horticult also have specializa in warfare(warriors).
- there are cultural rules/conducts of war; state soc gov �self-denying pacts� (kill u but no chemical weapon); only give name, rank, serial #. Higher level politic centralization=more sophistication of military, professional army, hierarchy in military leader(chiefdom, state=prof. complex milit; band, tribe=hav soliders but not complex milit); complex politic org=higher casualty rate=more rage war for politic control over others; how often we fight independent of complexity of polit (frequency not relate to how complex, simple soc is); it�s important how we fight.
Leopard skin chief:
mediator/arbitrator who settles disputes and feuds among the Nuer.
Functions of law:
?provide means of dealing peacefully with conflict. ?regulate indiv, gp conduct.
?prevent/redress/punishes any deviations.
Universality of religion:
- all soc hav some type of relig belief; vary w/n soc year to year (earthquake/flood).
- even found in Neanderthals-1st to bury the dead.
- [supernatural] power that is not of human.
- in some soc being ill/sick is due to evil spirit(supernat).
- �supernat�-differently used, different belief.
- We divide natural/supernat (religion) but it�s not like this in many others; religion is embedded in all aspect of life(religion+secular).
- Theories to account for universality:
?Tylor: compare contemporary religion with ancient religion: soul is beyond physical(dream, death..); �dual existence� of physical/visible body and psychologic/invisible soul; �animism�-intellectual curiosity to things we can�t understand.
?psychological theories: reduce anxiety/uncertainty of all people; threaten to disrupt social grp(major disruptor is Death-belief in afterlife; reassure it�s not the end); disruptors like uncontrollable disaster and general anxiety of death; cause all men to create ritual for social unity to face social disruption (ex)9-11 incident-psychological (people find church)
?sociological theories: why is religion universal-religion is the symbol of social authority; religion stems from society and its needs; it�s the grp/society that make distinction between sacred and common things (not the indiv); any society=considered as something sacred; most sacred obj in any soc is itself; we invent spiritual world as mirror to society.
- (ex) totem-symbolize the group; we identify with our own group(grp is very important); affirm group significance; recreate nature of his group in spiritual world.
?others(response to strain/deprivation-combine psyc+socio): religion is the way to respond to strain/deprivation; instability in soc(internal/external), most people turn to religion or vitalization.
- [social vitalization] bring in new culture/religion (ex) Christianity=revitalization movement; relative econ/social deprivation cause of stress can develop religious movement; threat of societal breakdown forces people to find new ways to survive by hope-revitalize soc.
3. . Psychological & Sociological functions:
- reduce anxiety.
- religion from society and its needs.
a. Types of supernatural forces & beings:
- supernat force(no person-like character; [mana]-�luck�, good force inhabited in obj or people; when harvest is good the stones have powerful mana.
- mana(can be touched) vs. taboo(not touch b/c cause harm-ex.nuns).
- supernat beings:
?non-human origin: gods/spirit; gods can be shape of animal (animal, earth, sun god)-belived to have created themselves then created other gods; some creator of world once world was created they retire, others interested, engaged in day to day (like in US); unnamed spirit(guardians)-some are mischievous(gnome), others evil(demon).
?human origin: ghost/ancestral spirit. When kin grp die, become spirit, remain part of the group; more likely believed these spirits influence the kin group on important decision making.
[monotheism] belief in one god or goddess-(ex)US, Hindu ; [polytheism] belief in several gods and/or goddesses.
c. Characteristics of supernatural beings:
personalality/characteristics could relate to child socialization of soc; some are unpredictable/predictable/helpful/punishing/remote/interested.. �nurtured gods�-where parent inconsistent�supernat being also inconsistent; soc with hurtful child-raising practive�gods also malevolent.
*Religion and political complexity:
- hierarchy of supernat being: stratification same in supernat; some gods equal, others ranked gods.
- supreme god in soc with political sys of 3-4level decision making.
- high god found in high levels of political government, dependent on food production rather than food collecting.
- gods associated w/ particular clans (serve higher god that clan is in higher status).
- when we face things we can�t explain/understand(unjust, causing pain..) we deal with it by intervention of god (disasters due to anger of gods); people can appeal to gods; gods do not intervene in all soc; intervene on moral behavior when there�s inequality; stratified soc (being good=will be rewarded afterlife).
d. Life after death:
- US (heaven/hell); others-soul return to earth, reborn (reincarnation-justify caste in life).
5. Variations in religious practices
- some perform individually.
- most soc have religious intermediary.
Shaman & priest
1) universal healing techniques
-[Shaman]: Witch doc/ religious intermed-to cure; part-time; technique vary indiv to indiv, diff from western; uses same mechanisms as psychiatrist as doctors with same result; medium between supernat and human world; usually gets fee;
4 things commonly used:
1. Naming process: disease identified-doc understand case
2. Personality of doc: empathy, genuine interest in patient tend to get better result.
3. Patient�s expectation: higher expect. the better chance of getting better. Longer trip seems more effective.
4. Curing tech: drugs, other techs.. how they(doc)use can diff
-[priest]: fulltime specialist; in US priests supported by donations/followers; depend on memorized rituals (one with successful ritual-people prefer); intermediary-saints, virgin mary etc; generally religious intermed in more complex soc with specialization- depend on food production; class stratification; high level of polit integration
b. 12 types of behaviors affecting supernatural- get in touch with supernatural: Wallace�s 12 type:
1. Prayer: distinguished from normal everyday language.
2. Use musical instrum or chant/dance.
3. Physiological experience; drug, fasting, produce feel of euphoria-closer to supernat.
4. Exortation/preaching: people act as intermed-closer to god.
5. Reciting the code: story, myth, codes of moral behave (bible, koran)
6. Simulation: imitate something(voodoo); divination-find cause/solution of prob from supernat (ex-throwing coin to decide, tarot card..).
8. Eating of sacred meal/feast: funeral food, wedding (symbolic meal..)
9. Some make sacrifice to god-attract god�s will or avoid anger of god. (stop smoking, fast.. persuation)
10. Social function: people meet to address god.
11. Inspiration: god can pick favored people to speak for him. Mark the presence of god.
12. Symbolism: direct representation of deity (arts, statue..) believed to contain supernat power thus very emotional.
6. Definition of magic
- [magic]: How much people feel they can force supernatural to act on their behalf.
a. Sorcery & witchcraft: attempt to evoke spirit to harm others.
- [sorcery]: Can include material obj and med to evoke supernat; some can be used by anyone or others sorcerers are special, secretive. Can prove with possession; secret part-time specialist.
- [witchcraft]: thru thought and action alone. Just lose �trust� of others when accused. Unpopular, old women. �unchristian-believing witchcraft�. Anything that went against the norm-accused for witchcraft(unchristians); occurred in rural areas; Occur in societies without ways of dealing with criminal behavior.
b. Function of Sorcery and Witchcraft
-manipulation of supernatural for good or bad pursues
-insure fertility of animals, avoid and cure illness
- all soc need social control.
- Witch, sorcery: usually occur in places that lack formal, judicial authority to deal with criminal (social control); Usually places where there�s no way to deal with anti-social behav
1. Mechanisms of change
a. Innovation�primary & secondary:
[primary innovation]-creation, invention, chance discovery of completely new idea/method/device; given structure by cultural context.
[secondary innovation]-deliberate application.modification of existing idea/method/device. (ex-clay, pottery)
b. Diffusion: spread of certain ideas/customs/practices from one culture to another. (ex-metric unit sys, currency..)
c. Cultural Loss: abandonment of existing practice/trait. Frequently culture change from accumulation of innovation result in culture loss.
d. Acculturation: massive culture change that occurs in soc when it experiences intensive firsthand contact with more powerful soc. (ex)-can occure due to milit conquest, polit/economy expansion, massiv invasion.. [ethnocide]-violent eradication of ethnic gp's collective cultural identity as distinctive people; occurs when dominant soc deliberately sets out to destroy another soc�s cultural heritage.
2. Reactions to forcible change
a. Syncretism: in acculturation, creative blending of indigenous and foreign beliefs and practices into new cultural forms.
b. Revitalization movements: efforts for radical cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption and collective feelings of anxiety and despair. (ex)hippies
c. Rebellion & Revolution: [rebellion]-organized armed resistance to established gov or authority in power.
[revolution]-radical change in soc or culture. In political arena, it involves forced overthrow of an old gov and establishment of completely new one.
- political rebellion requires centralized political authority to rebel against; kin-ordered soc (tribe, band) can�t have rebellion or politic revolution.
3. Modernization�effects of:
[modernization]-process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing soc acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial soc.
- self-determination;helt to illustrate some of problems such changing cultures have met.
- globalization in �underdeveloped� world; rapid changes; burden of modernization falls most heavily on women(ignore women�s traditional land rights, employment..)
Definition ofexpressive culture:
visual art, theater, myth, story, game sport, festival, movies; Generalized reciprocity; leadership unstratified; The arts; people express themselves creatively in dance, music, song, painting, sculpture, pottery, cloth, storytelling, verse, prose, drama, and comedy.
Universality of expressive culture:
- most soc used art to give meaningful expression to almost every part of their culture, religion, kinship, ethnic identity.
- significance of expressive culture:
1.way by which culture values and social instit are explored, challenged, upheld.
a. explores meaning of daily life: interpreters of life. (ex)writers, musicians..
- as soc more secularized, specialized interpreters get more prominent.
- good artists force us to question validity of institution; challenge values
- sports figure tend to confirm values
- Sport=most conservative form of play; has rules
- can learn many meaning of daily life.
b. Deals with social/cultural conflict in miniature.
- Expressive cultures (play/music..) deal with social conflicts in miniature (not real-more easily controllable). It�s powerful.
2. reflects soc
Open to all vs. specialists:
-Mirror soc institution
-exress cult open to everyone. More complex soc= more task specialization, rulers have more power over others. Full time specialists (musician, artists..)
- exp cult controlled mostly by specialists.
3. Functions of expressive culture:
- myth-offer basic explanation about world, set cultural standard for right behavior; verbal art transmit/preserve culture�s custom/values; any art form which is characteristic of particular soc, may contribute to cohesiveness/solidarity of that soc; may also express political theme, used to influence events, create social change.
4. What it can show us about culture:
- can show different worldview, religious beliefs, political ideas, social values, kinship structures, econ relations, historical memory.
5. Visual or pictorial arts; performance arts�verbal, music & dance; play, sports and festivals
- show available technique in culture; choice/use of artistic material mirror environ; soc represent object/phenomenon thru art; can learn soc�s primary concern; soc content reflect soc stratification.
- art in Egalitarian vs. Stratified:
? [egalit]: ?repetition of simple elements. ?empty/irrelevant spaces. ?symmetric designs. ?unenclosed figure; these unconsciously represent character of soc: convey little polit org, few authority; hunter/gather-simple soc-secure within own group; symmetry(likeness); unenclosed(free access to resource).
? [stratif] ?integration of unlike element. ?very little emptiness. ?asymmetric design.(stratification; boundaries; rules) ?enclosed firue. (virgin Mary enclosing child; everything is enclosing)
- can see diversity/inequality/soc differentiation�complex pattern.
- interdependent due to specialization-fit together as a whole.
reflect culture, social org. music-powerful (convey ideas/words)-lyrics important it pull people together; dance can reflect gender/soc org(use body-sexuality; courtship, convey behavior of male, female-usually men emphasize potency, fem emphas seduction), understand soc relation.
� [folklore]-unwritten stories and other artistic traditions of rural people.
� [myth]-sacred narrative that explain fundamental of human existence.
� [legend]-story about memorable event/figure handed down by tradition and told as true but w/o historical evidence.
� [epic]-long, dramatic narrative recounting celebrated deeds of historic/legendary hero.
� [tale]-creative narrative that�s recognized as fiction for entertainment but also draw moral/teach a practical lesson.
-there are plays in all soc; play suspend real world rules and assume play rules; deliberately set apart with real world;formal sys of play(sports-all costume, display, ceremony are like play); play is a chance behaviors can be tested to real world like games.
- forager soc-lern to hunt by playing(game); dolls, cooking game for nurturing.
- sport: include physical contest; mostly young men preparing adult world(hunt, negotiation..).
- 3types of play:
?children�s play: social org; orruc in all soc; universal practice for adult role.
?game:(can include children�s game, board game, activity):
- physical skill(hunt/fish):-competitive.
- game of chance(survival):
?game of strategy(chess):-advanced technique, class stratified soc; high risk-taker, competitive.
- in US can find all 3 types (ex)football.
- common for 2 or more neighbor ethnic group or nation to draw together in loose political union while maintain their particular cultural identity.
- cultural pluralism is still more common than multiculturalism.
Definition of religion:
any set of attitude/belief/practice that pertain to supernatural power; organized sys of ideas about spiritual sphere or supernatural, along with associated ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and/or influence aspects of universe otherwise beyond their control.
belief that the ways of one�s own culture are the only proper ones.- to overcome cultural superiority complex, pluralistic soc may hav to develop common superstructure w/ ideology that binds diff peoples together in collective identity and destiny.
- reciprocity is important. (exchange critical)- brother-in-law is important.- white feather means peace.
secular celebration; can include important person/event; antistructure; value/social relation can taken apart symbolically (sacrifice); provide context of enactment of main symbol of soc; re-enforce value of soc(4th of july) (ex)honor self-sacrifice on memorial day.- joke, cartoon also express cult