Physical Science Final

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smyers778
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123422
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Physical Science Final
Updated:
2011-12-13 14:51:45
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ps100 byu physical science
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final exam review
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  1. what are the six self evident truths
    • existence
    • causality
    • position symmetry
    • Occams razor
    • Time Symmetry
    • principle of non-contradiction
  2. 4 interactions in nature from strongest to weakest
    Nuclear strong, electromagnetic, nuclear weak, gravity
  3. Newtons First law
    If an object is at rest or is moving in uniform motion it will remain in that state unless another force acts on it.
  4. Newton's Second Law
    Force equals Mass times Acceleartion
  5. Newton's Third Law
    • every action has an equal and opposite reaction
    • equal and opposite forces
  6. Acceleration
    Rate of change of velocity per unit time, or change of velocity divided by the time required for the change
  7. Mass
    the characteristic of a body which determiines how much it accelerates when a force is applied
  8. weight
    a measure of the force of gravity pulling on an object
  9. Velocity
    the speed in a particular direction of a moving body
  10. In the absence of friction all objects fall...
    with the same acceleration regardless of their mass
  11. Electric Force Law
    • pairs of objecst with similar charges repel each other and pairs with dissimilar charges attract each other with forces, F, that obey Newton's third law
    • F=kQq/d(d)
  12. gas discharge tube
    • J.J. Thomson
    • determined that electricity had mass
    • atoms of gas in the tube were being broken down into charged fragments
    • negative fragments always had the same mass
    • discovered the electron
  13. Oil-drop experiment
    • Milikan
    • figured out a way to determine the charge of an electron
  14. Pressure
    P=force/area
  15. Fluid
    anything that flows, includes air and water
  16. Pressure
    • 1. depends on depth (greater at greater depth)
    • 2. pressure is the same depth for all points at the same depth
    • 3. pressure at a given depth is independent of direction
    • 4. pressure is always perpendiculaer to the surface of the submerged object
  17. Bouyant Force
    a force pushing upward on objects immersed in fluid
  18. Density
    an object's mass divided by its volume
  19. Inertial Frame of Reference
    a perspective that is experiencing no acceleration
  20. non-inertial fram of reference
    a perspective that is undergoing an acceleration
  21. Time dilation
    the slowing of a clock as its speed approaches the speed of light as measured by an observer not moving with the clock
  22. Length contraction
    the shortening of an object along its direction of motion as its speed approaches the speed of light, as measured by an observer not moving with the object
  23. Mechanical waves
    A travelling disturbance in material that trasports energy
  24. equiblirium position
    The place where a malecule will reside when no unbalanced forces are acting upon it.
  25. Compression Wave
    a wave in which the molecules of a medium vibrate in the same direction as the wave propagates. also known as a longitudinal wave.
  26. Shear wave
    a wave in which the molecules of the medium vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave propagates. also known as a transverse wave
  27. reflection
    bouncing back of a wave
  28. refraction
    bending of a wave as it enters a new medium
  29. diffraction
    when waves bend past something
  30. interference
    two waves that combine together and either have constructive or destructive patterns
  31. electromagnetic spectrum
    • Rabbits Mate In Very Unusually X-pensive Gardens
    • Radio waves
    • Microwaves
    • Infra-red
    • Visible Light
    • Ultra-violet
    • X-rays
    • Gamma
  32. Photoelectric effect (particle)•
    Electroscope charges negatively. Wave energy is determined by amplitude. Particle energy is determined by frequency. Turn up amplitude on electroscope photon can’t be discharged. Photon has no mass. Cant knock off electron. Electron absorbs energy from photon to jump off energy. BOHR MODEL. Light is a particle, not just a wave.
  33. Ionic Bonding
    metal and nonmetal, ions, electromagnetic force, transparent, high mp and bp, brittle, conducts when melted, dissolved, or vaporized (EX. SALT)
  34. Metallic BOnding
    : metal and metal, charged ions, sea of electrons, opaque (can’t see through) and shiny, high mp and bp, malleable, conductive (EX. ALUMINUM FOIL)
  35. Covalent:
    • nonmetal and nonmetal, molecules, intramolecular forces (single, double, and triple bonds), transparent, low mp and bp, brittle (solid), not conductive (EX. WATER- 2 hydrogen and oxygen)
    • - hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, dispersion (Vanderwaals à hold non-polar molecules together)
  36. Saturated Fatty Acids
    Saturated: longer chains, bigger dispersion forces, higher melting points, solid at room temp
  37. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
    kinky chains, weaker dispersion forces, lower melting points, liquid at room temp
  38. Transfats
    hybrid between the two. Double bond but straight. The worst for you.
  39. 5 ways to know whats inside the earth
    • direct observation
    • meteorites
    • earths mass and density
    • seismology
    • earths magnetic fields
  40. 3 compositional layers of the earth
    • Crust: High Oxygen Silicates
    • Mantle: Iron and Magnesium Silicates
    • Core: Iron and Nickle
  41. 5 Mechanical Layers of the Earth
    • Lithosphere: Rocky
    • Asthenosphere: Plastic
    • Mesosphere: Solid
    • Outer Core: liquid
    • Inner Core: solid
  42. 5 evidences of continental drift
    • jigsaw fit of the continents
    • continental structure
    • shield
    • platform
    • mountain belt paleontological evidence
    • same fossil evidence on multiple continents paleoclimatic evidence
    • glaciers, tropics
    • paleomagnetic evidence
    • rocks formed from lava record magnetic fields

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