# Physical Science Final

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1. what are the six self evident truths
• existence
• causality
• position symmetry
• Occams razor
• Time Symmetry
2. 4 interactions in nature from strongest to weakest
Nuclear strong, electromagnetic, nuclear weak, gravity
3. Newtons First law
If an object is at rest or is moving in uniform motion it will remain in that state unless another force acts on it.
4. Newton's Second Law
Force equals Mass times Acceleartion
5. Newton's Third Law
• every action has an equal and opposite reaction
• equal and opposite forces
6. Acceleration
Rate of change of velocity per unit time, or change of velocity divided by the time required for the change
7. Mass
the characteristic of a body which determiines how much it accelerates when a force is applied
8. weight
a measure of the force of gravity pulling on an object
9. Velocity
the speed in a particular direction of a moving body
10. In the absence of friction all objects fall...
with the same acceleration regardless of their mass
11. Electric Force Law
• pairs of objecst with similar charges repel each other and pairs with dissimilar charges attract each other with forces, F, that obey Newton's third law
• F=kQq/d(d)
12. gas discharge tube
• J.J. Thomson
• determined that electricity had mass
• atoms of gas in the tube were being broken down into charged fragments
• negative fragments always had the same mass
• discovered the electron
13. Oil-drop experiment
• Milikan
• figured out a way to determine the charge of an electron
14. Pressure
P=force/area
15. Fluid
anything that flows, includes air and water
16. Pressure
• 1. depends on depth (greater at greater depth)
• 2. pressure is the same depth for all points at the same depth
• 3. pressure at a given depth is independent of direction
• 4. pressure is always perpendiculaer to the surface of the submerged object
17. Bouyant Force
a force pushing upward on objects immersed in fluid
18. Density
an object's mass divided by its volume
19. Inertial Frame of Reference
a perspective that is experiencing no acceleration
20. non-inertial fram of reference
a perspective that is undergoing an acceleration
21. Time dilation
the slowing of a clock as its speed approaches the speed of light as measured by an observer not moving with the clock
22. Length contraction
the shortening of an object along its direction of motion as its speed approaches the speed of light, as measured by an observer not moving with the object
23. Mechanical waves
A travelling disturbance in material that trasports energy
24. equiblirium position
The place where a malecule will reside when no unbalanced forces are acting upon it.
25. Compression Wave
a wave in which the molecules of a medium vibrate in the same direction as the wave propagates. also known as a longitudinal wave.
26. Shear wave
a wave in which the molecules of the medium vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave propagates. also known as a transverse wave
27. reflection
bouncing back of a wave
28. refraction
bending of a wave as it enters a new medium
29. diffraction
when waves bend past something
30. interference
two waves that combine together and either have constructive or destructive patterns
31. electromagnetic spectrum
• Rabbits Mate In Very Unusually X-pensive Gardens
• Microwaves
• Infra-red
• Visible Light
• Ultra-violet
• X-rays
• Gamma
32. Photoelectric effect (particle)•
Electroscope charges negatively. Wave energy is determined by amplitude. Particle energy is determined by frequency. Turn up amplitude on electroscope photon can’t be discharged. Photon has no mass. Cant knock off electron. Electron absorbs energy from photon to jump off energy. BOHR MODEL. Light is a particle, not just a wave.
33. Ionic Bonding
metal and nonmetal, ions, electromagnetic force, transparent, high mp and bp, brittle, conducts when melted, dissolved, or vaporized (EX. SALT)
34. Metallic BOnding
: metal and metal, charged ions, sea of electrons, opaque (can’t see through) and shiny, high mp and bp, malleable, conductive (EX. ALUMINUM FOIL)
35. Covalent:
• nonmetal and nonmetal, molecules, intramolecular forces (single, double, and triple bonds), transparent, low mp and bp, brittle (solid), not conductive (EX. WATER- 2 hydrogen and oxygen)
• - hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, dispersion (Vanderwaals à hold non-polar molecules together)
36. Saturated Fatty Acids
Saturated: longer chains, bigger dispersion forces, higher melting points, solid at room temp
37. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
kinky chains, weaker dispersion forces, lower melting points, liquid at room temp
38. Transfats
hybrid between the two. Double bond but straight. The worst for you.
39. 5 ways to know whats inside the earth
• direct observation
• meteorites
• earths mass and density
• seismology
• earths magnetic fields
40. 3 compositional layers of the earth
• Crust: High Oxygen Silicates
• Mantle: Iron and Magnesium Silicates
• Core: Iron and Nickle
41. 5 Mechanical Layers of the Earth
• Lithosphere: Rocky
• Asthenosphere: Plastic
• Mesosphere: Solid
• Outer Core: liquid
• Inner Core: solid
42. 5 evidences of continental drift
• jigsaw fit of the continents
• continental structure
• shield
• platform
• mountain belt paleontological evidence
• same fossil evidence on multiple continents paleoclimatic evidence
• glaciers, tropics
• paleomagnetic evidence
• rocks formed from lava record magnetic fields
 Author: smyers778 ID: 123422 Card Set: Physical Science Final Updated: 2011-12-13 19:51:45 Tags: ps100 byu physical science Folders: Description: final exam review Show Answers: