FINAL EXAM

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  1. Blood:
    • Plasma and Cellular Elements of Blood
    • Hematopoiesis
    • RBC Physiology
    • Coagulation
  2. Plasma:
    • 92% water
    • 7% proteins
    • 1% organic mol (AA, glucose, lipids, N wastes), ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, H+, Ca2+), trace elements, vitamins, O2, and CO2
  3. Plasma Proteins:
    albumins *60% (prescence of proteins makes osmotic pressure higher; carriers)

    • globulins (clotting, enzymes, antibodies, carriers)
    • fibrinogen (essential to clotting) *30%
    • transferrin (transports iron)

    immunoglobulins (antibodies; secreted by specialized blood cells rather than by liver)

    • Functions:
    • clotting
    • defense against foreign invaders
    • carriers for steroid hormones, cholesterol, drugs, and iron
    • act as hormones or enzymes
  4. Cellular Elements:
    • RBCs (erythrocyes)
    • WBCs (leukocytes)
    • platelets (thrombocytes)
  5. RBCs:
    • have lost their nucleus by the time they enter the blood stream
    • play key role in transporting O2 from lungs -> tissues
    • CO2 from tissues -> lungs
  6. WBCs:
    • only fully functional cells in circulation
    • play key role in body's immune response
    • defend against foregin invaders
    • work is usually carried out in tissues rather than in circulatory system
    • Five types of WBCs:
    • lymphocytes *immunocytes

    monocytes (in tissues: macrophages) *phagocytes

    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils *granulocytes
    • basophils (mast cells)

    Diapedesis: WBC leaves
  7. Platelets:
    • lack a nucelus
    • split off parent cell, megakaryocyte
    • play a role in coagulation
  8. Hematopoiesis:
    • the synthesis of blood cells
    • embryo forms clusters -> blood cells -> liver, spleen, and bone marrow produce -> liver and spleen dont produce after birth -> production continues in the marrow until age 5 -> continues to decrease as we age
Author
ID
123488
Card Set
FINAL EXAM
Description
Blood, Mechanics of Breathing, Gas Exchange and Transport, The Kidneys, Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, The Digestive System, Immune System, Reproductive System
Updated
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