FINAL EXAM

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
123488
Filename:
FINAL EXAM
Updated:
2011-12-13 18:22:11
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16 17 18 19 20 21 24 26
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Description:
Blood, Mechanics of Breathing, Gas Exchange and Transport, The Kidneys, Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, The Digestive System, Immune System, Reproductive System
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  1. Blood:
    • Plasma and Cellular Elements of Blood
    • Hematopoiesis
    • RBC Physiology
    • Coagulation
  2. Plasma:
    • 92% water
    • 7% proteins
    • 1% organic mol (AA, glucose, lipids, N wastes), ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, H+, Ca2+), trace elements, vitamins, O2, and CO2
  3. Plasma Proteins:
    albumins *60% (prescence of proteins makes osmotic pressure higher; carriers)

    • globulins (clotting, enzymes, antibodies, carriers)
    • fibrinogen (essential to clotting) *30%
    • transferrin (transports iron)

    immunoglobulins (antibodies; secreted by specialized blood cells rather than by liver)

    • Functions:
    • clotting
    • defense against foreign invaders
    • carriers for steroid hormones, cholesterol, drugs, and iron
    • act as hormones or enzymes
  4. Cellular Elements:
    • RBCs (erythrocyes)
    • WBCs (leukocytes)
    • platelets (thrombocytes)
  5. RBCs:
    • have lost their nucleus by the time they enter the blood stream
    • play key role in transporting O2 from lungs -> tissues
    • CO2 from tissues -> lungs
  6. WBCs:
    • only fully functional cells in circulation
    • play key role in body's immune response
    • defend against foregin invaders
    • work is usually carried out in tissues rather than in circulatory system
    • Five types of WBCs:
    • lymphocytes *immunocytes

    monocytes (in tissues: macrophages) *phagocytes

    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils *granulocytes
    • basophils (mast cells)

    Diapedesis: WBC leaves
  7. Platelets:
    • lack a nucelus
    • split off parent cell, megakaryocyte
    • play a role in coagulation
  8. Hematopoiesis:
    • the synthesis of blood cells
    • embryo forms clusters -> blood cells -> liver, spleen, and bone marrow produce -> liver and spleen dont produce after birth -> production continues in the marrow until age 5 -> continues to decrease as we age

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