Chapter 15 Terms

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ellie.kay88
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Chapter 15 Terms
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2011-12-13 18:40:56
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AP American History
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terms for Chapter 15 of Nation of Nations
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  1. John Brown
    • -calvinist, staunch abolitionist, leader of the Pottawattomie Massacre (led his four sons to kill five "pro-slavery" men in Pot. Creek), Northern hero for few/ overall criminal
    • -on Oct. 16, 1859, seized Harper's Ferry w 21 followers, Robert E. Lee and army soon captured John Brown
    • --> became martyr for anti-slavery cause, dec 2 Hanged for treason
    • -----> Republicans denounced raid but other N. Radicals supported
  2. Pottawatomie Massacre
    • led by John Brown and his sons, May 24, 1856, went toward Pot. Creek and murdered five "pro-slaver" men
    • --> new wave of fighting in KS over slavery
  3. "Bleeding Kansas"
    term given to slavery war in Kansas, national concern, in about 1856, that sparked the beginnings of the civil war
  4. Cyrus McCormick
    • refined a mechanical reaper that harvested 14 times more wheat than previously was able to be harvested
    • --> made it easer to grow wheat, cheaper, more profitable
  5. Franklin Pierce
    youngest president yet, supporter of "Young America" movement by Democratic party, concluded Gadsden Purchase, Ostend Manifesto
  6. Gadsden Purchase
    1853 Pierce managed to "buy" (threaten to invade Mexico and then give them money for territory) that gave best border (as it is today) bc of river, 45,000 sq mi of Mexican desert added to United States
  7. Ostend Manifesto
    • 1854, 3 American ministers met in Ostend, Belgium confidentially recommended that if Spain would not sell, the island of Cuba would be seized
    • - contents leaked and Pierce forced to repudiate acxquiring Cuba through marked agression, would have been slave state and territory for all blacks to go to and Northerners liked bc potential black state
  8. Stephen Douglas
    • "little Giant" chairman of Senta'es committee on territories, form Chicago, whole train track ordeal
    • --> repealing of MO comp when he creates the KS-NE Act
  9. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • created 2 new territories; KS and a much larger NE territoy, popular soveirgnty would be used for the issue of slavery in the two territories, created by Stephen Douglas, influenced only economically
    • --> outraged Democrats, Whigs, and Free-Soilers
  10. Know-Nothing Party
    • secret nativist party, "Americans should rule America", dislike immigrants, anti-Catholic, hate irish
    • appealed to young, Native-born workers
    • only lasted 1853-1856
    • aka American Party, supported temperance bc irish drink a lot, eventually had Millard Fillmore as presidential candidate
  11. Republicans
    • attracted variety of Whigs, anti-Nebraska Democrats, and Free-Soilers
    • popularized by "Bleeding Kansas"
    • free labor, anti-South, LOVE Nother, want to stop expansion of slavery, keep slavery in South, slavery=morally wrong
  12. Charles Sumner
    • senator of MA, delivered speech condemning slavery and specifically insulting South Carolina and one fo the senators Andrew Butler
    • --> days later Preston Brooks, a relative of Butler, went up to Sumner and violently beat him w his cane
    • -----> Brook swas hero to South, made the ideas of "Bleeding Kansas" and Slave Power credible, 1st sign of physical violence in government over slavery issue
  13. Slave Power
    manipulated by Republicans, idea that slavery had power to manipulate politics and over-run the North with this "power" (political influence of planter class)
  14. Election of 1856
    • Democrats: Buchanan (bc out of country when KS-NE Act passed therefore objective) v.s. American Party: Millard Fillmore (badly split by KS-NE issue) v.s. Republican: John C. Fremont (explorer that liberated CA during Mex War)
    • ------> Buchanan won BUT Fillmore ALMOST won!
    • *1st time an anti-slavery party ALMOST won an election, ALMOST breaking bonds of the Union*
  15. Dred Scott Decision
    • Dred Scott tried to sue slave owner for freedom but court (Robert Taney) said:
    • 1) slaves=property so cannot sue for rights
    • 2) MO Compromise= unconstitutional
    • 3) declared congress had no right to ban slavery because you can't take away propert
    • -----> South overjoyed, North furious and scared
    • *decision supported John C. Calhoun and basically condemned pop sover.
  16. Panic of 1857
    • caused by falling wheat prices and over-extended credit
    • South remained virtually untouched so... South thought could be independent and Notherners urged gvt to fix economy and raise tariff
  17. The Lecompton Constitution
    • an attempt to make Kansas a slave state
    • delegates drafted a constitution that made slavery legal and a referendum that voters could only choose to admit additional slaves into territories
  18. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    • debates by Lincoln and Douglas about the slavery issue and other political topics that would ahve an impact in the political election of 1860
    • Licoln said America couldn't be divided on issue while Douglas said it could
  19. Freeport Doctrine
    • document that said that slavery could exist only with the protection of law and that slave owners would nto bind slaves into a territory without a slave code
    • supported by Douglas
  20. Able Lincoln
    moderate on slavery issue, strong support from Illinois, Republican candidate, great emancipator, etc, president during Civil War, assasinated by Boothe
  21. Election of 1860
    • Licoln (R) v Breckenrdge (South D) v Bell (contituional Union) v Douglas (N D)
    • Lincoln won because of division among Democrats
    • *1st time nation had elected a sectyional party devoted to ending slaver*
    • --> South succeeds
    • Dec. 20, 1860 S.C. succeeds and Feb 7 1861 Deep South follows
    • ---> states S.C. to texas formed Confed States of America w Jefferson Davis as president
  22. Crittendon Compromise
    • senator John Crittendon from KY proposed solution; a constituional amendment
    • --extended to CA the MO Comp line of 36 30
    • --"unamendable amendment"- forever protects slavery where it was
    • --------> FAILED bc: both sides had to make concessions and both were unwilling to do so
  23. Fort Sumter
    • Major Robert Anderson, commander of federal garrison, told Lincoln needed supplies of would have to surrender, Lincoln sent food, Jefferson Davis had commander demand surrender, North didn't, South opened fire, Fort Sumter surrendered
    • -> Lincoln sent 75,000 volunteers to put down rebellion
    • ---> Upper South seceeded

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