Chapter 16 Terms

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Chapter 16 Terms
2011-12-13 21:52:52
AP American History

chapter 16 terms for nation of nations
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  1. Jefferson Davis
    educated at West Point, fought in Mex War, Pierce's secretary of war, narrowly and legallistically approached problems, president of Confederacy, bad military planner
  2. General George McClellan
    commander of Union army, disliked Lincol, had been working as RR exec, Western business efficiency, organized and drilled the army of the Pottomac, over protective, didn't like to have his army "dinged", fired and dismissed MANY times
  3. Border States
    • important in war (Maryland, KY and MO) esp Maryland bc WA D.C.
    • -writ of habeus corpus suspended in Mary. and imprisoned Confeds
    • -KY is neutral--> elected Unionist --> confeds invade --> Union occupies --> KY=Union's
    • -MO only secure after March 1862, Battle of Pea Ridge (still g. warfare)
    • -VA --> split--> W VA and formally state in June 1863
    • *states key for pupulation reasons, supplies, and RR, and major rivers*
  4. Anaconda Plan
    proposal developed by Winfield Scott to blockade and surround the Confed, cut off supplies, and therefore force the South into submission
  5. King Cotton Diplomacy
    • the South believed that bc of Europe's heavy reliance on Soiuthern Cotton that they would quickly come to the South's aid in the war
    • -France would recognize South if GB did but GB said no and therefore all of Europe said no
    • *south on its own*
  6. Ironclads
    • small, fast gunships created for naval use
    • -U.S.S. Merrimack-> iron Virginia (Southern) v Union iron clad the Monitor
    • --> Monitor ran off VA----> Navy blockad secure for Union
  7. Ulysses S. Grant
    calm, cool headed, photographic, utilized telegraph, good Union general, fought and won 1st major battle on the Western front, fought at Shiloh
  8. Shiloh
    • battle north of TN- MI border against Southern General Albert Sydney Johnston, fough long and hard and were losing bc of drunk U.S. Grant but Grant called overnight reinforcements and came back and won the war with the cost of 23000 lives
    • *lots of bloodshed on both sides, bitter victory*
  9. Robert E. Lee
    • Confederate General, daring, replaced Joseph Johnston in Northern VA military
    • -invaded Maryland hoping to get D.C.--> failed= battle of Anteitem
  10. Thomas Jackson
    • aka Thomas "Stonewall" Jackons, general, aided Lee in Northern A
    • -Calvinist, strictly disciplined troops
  11. Anteitem
    • McClellan on defensive as Lee invades Maryland, Lee retreats but McClellan doesnt defeat his army, McClellan permanently relieved
    • -sour victory with HEAVY casualties
    • *1st time Confeds invade the Union*
  12. Crittendon Resolution
    • declared that the war was "to defend and maintain the Union", did not ahve anything to do with slavery (Lincoln)
    • --> said bc he did not want to upset wavering border states
  13. First Confiscation Act
    • slaves "contraband of war" and wont be returned to rebel owners
    • aka slaves used for military purposes by Confedswould becom free if confiscated by Union bc they are property
  14. Second Confiscation Act
    • slaves of supporters of the rebellion would be free if in federal custody, used militarily or not
    • *Lincoln overall ignored the act and relied on state decisions on slavery*
  15. Internal Revenue Bureau
    created in 1861 by congress to oversee the collection of tazes to help support the war, such as the excise tax and congress's first income tax
  16. Greenbacks
    • currency in the U.S. that was printed during the civil war bc of their green color on one side
    • could not be redeemed in specie and value fluctuated
  17. Attrition
    having such heavy losses in men have to surrender, aka we3aring down the other side, killing more of them than they are of you, becomes war tactic during the beginnning of total war when Grant and Sherman begin march through south and Atlanta
  18. Total War
    new during the civil war but tactic to destroy anything war-related on enemy sides, involved every aspect of nation in war, began during Sherman's march through Atlanta
  19. Homestead Act
    1862, granted 160 acres of public land to anyone (even women) who would settle and improve the land for five years
  20. Land Grant College Act
    1862 donated the proceeds from certain land sales to finance public colleges and universities--> 69 insitutions created, most in West
  21. Clara Barton
    important during Civil War, great heroic nurse who had a stong influence on nursing and medicin during the war and influence the creation of permanent medical bases w bedside nurses and the treatment of soldiers DURING battle
  22. Ex Parte Milligan
    • 1866 Supreme court Case that ruled against Lincoln saying as long as the regular courts worked, civilians could NOT be tried by military tribunals
    • Lincoln had wanted stricter trials during war time
  23. Copperheads
    • those who opposed the war, a venomous snake waiting to strike the Union, the extreme peace wing of Democrats
    • hurt by economic changes of war, opposed emancipation and draft
  24. Gettysburg
    • the war's greatest battle, spring of 1863, Lee v Mead and Lee sent 1400 men to cemetary ridge
    • -huge casualties on each side, Lee lost one third of army
    • -->South can necer take offensive again
  25. Vicksburg
    • battle on west which Grant led, leaving behind supply lines and forcing troops to move quickly and raid towns for supplies
    • -1st time total war was actually practiced
    • -starved Vicksburg into submission and took it july 4th
    • *had completely taken MI and divided the Confed*
    • -->Grant sent to East and recieved Lt. General Rank
  26. William T. Sherman
    • replaced Grant as commander of the Western Army
    • -drove a diagnol wedge through confed TN to GA
    • -would go into middle of Confed and use Total Warfare
    • -marched to skirts of Atlanta and captured Atlanta
  27. Bull Run (1st and 2nd)
    • basically where Confeds win each battle and each time have chance to capture Union capital but don't because fighting a
    • "defensive" war although could have won war both times
  28. 1864 Election
    • Republican Lincon w promise of abolition of slavery w VP Democratic Andrew Johnson aka "Union Pary" v
    • George McClellan- Democrat- promised end of war and to reinstate slaver
    • -right after Farragut had victory at Mobile Bay and Sherman had taken Atlanta
    • -->Lincoln won bc of votes from Soldiers
    • ------->hope of confed victory= GONE and slavery abolished for sure
  29. 13th Amendment
    • passed Jan 31, 1865 and freed all slaves w/out compensating owners for loss
    • --> eventual end of slavery in other nations as well bc of this
  30. Appomatox
    • Lee surrendered April 9, 1865 at Appomatox Courthouse
    • -Confederates have to swear loyalty to Union and go home
    • -officers keep guns and soldiers keep horses
    • -->wanted to make sure confeds didn't feel embarrassed
  31. Gettysburg Address
    Lincoln's address to nation? look up...
  32. New York Riots
    • riots made by Irish Catholics over working conditions, Gettysburg troops have to put down
    • *biggest riot in history*