Chem 201 Unit 4

Card Set Information

Author:
migratorycoconut
ID:
123538
Filename:
Chem 201 Unit 4
Updated:
2011-12-13 23:35:42
Tags:
organic chemistry 201 MATC
Folders:

Description:
items to study for unit 4 test of Chemistry 201 at madison area technical college
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user migratorycoconut on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Amylose
    sugars
    structure
    linkages
    function
    • D-glucose
    • linear
    • alpha- 1-4
    • energy storage
  2. Amylopectin
    sugars
    structure
    linkages
    function
    • D-glucose
    • linear with branches
    • Linear alpha 1-4, branches alpha 1-6
    • energy storage
  3. Glycogen
    sugars
    structure
    linkages
    function
    • D-glucose
    • linear with branches
    • linear alpha 1-4, branches alpha 1-6
    • glucose storage in animals
    • maintains blood sugar levels
  4. Cellulose
    sugars
    structure
    linkages
    function
    • D-glucose
    • linear
    • beta 1-4
    • structure in plants
  5. name of the special carbon on a sugar ring
    anomeric carbon
  6. when #6 carbon group is above the ring just like the OH on the anomeric carbon (the carbon group and the OH are on the same side of the ring)
    beta stereoisomer
  7. when the #6 carbon group and the OH of an anomeric carbon are on opposite sides of the ring (one above, one below)
    alpha stereoisomer
  8. when the OH group of the second to last carbon on a sugar chain is on the left side
    L stereochemistry
  9. when the OH group on the second to last carbon of a sugar chain is on the right side
    D- stereochemistry
  10. what happens with the oxidation of an aldehyde?
    an O is inserted between the carbonyl and the H and a carboxylic acid is formed.
  11. what happens with the hydrolysis of a glycoside linkage?
    Two monosaccharides are split and an OH groups is formed at each split. H goes to the side that retained the O after the split, and OH goes to the side that was left with an empty bond.
  12. explain how to draw the structural formula of a given carboxylic acid
    use the table on help sheet to determine the number of carbons, on the last carbon place the carboxylic acid group (=O and -OH) fill in the remainder of Carbosn with Hs
  13. explain how to draw the structure of a given amine
    There will be 3 groups around the Nitrogen, Hydrogens if not named, otherwise add the groups that are named (ex: dimethyl amine has 2 CH3 groups and an H)
  14. Natural fatty acids
    5 general structural characteristics
    • one long, unbranched chain of Carbons
    • even number of carbons
    • mostly single bonds
    • if double bonds, they are cis
    • one carboxylic acid on end
  15. triacylglycerols
    three fatty acids attached by esters to glycerol
  16. what are soaps?
    charged fatty acids
  17. what does lipase do?
    hydolizes triacylglycerols into a glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  18. phospholipids
    general components
    • core alcohol (glycerol or sphingosine)
    • fatty acids (one or two)
    • phosphate group (phosphate and polar group)
  19. what compound is the base of steroid structures and describe it
    • cholesterol
    • 4 rings all together
    • 3 hexagon
    • 1 pentagon
  20. triacylglycerol
    2 biological functions
    • energy storage
    • insulate organism
  21. phospholipid
    2 biological functions
    • membranes
    • cholesterol transport
  22. cholesterol
    4 biological functions
    • membrane component
    • make vitamin D
    • make steroid hormones
    • make bile salts
  23. steroid hormones
    1 biological function
    regulate cell processes
  24. list the three structures that make up the common backbone of all amino acids
    NH2-CHR-COOH
  25. if the environment (pH) surrounding an amino acid is more acidic (lower) than the pKa of a group, in which form will the group be found?
    acidic, with an H, because the surroundings give it an H
  26. if the environment (pH) surrounding an amino acid is more basic (higher) than the pKa of a group, in which form will the group be found?
    basic (less H) because the surroundings will take the H
  27. primary structure of protein
    the sequence of the amino acids
  28. secondary structure of proteins
    • shape of local regions of backbone
    • alpha helix
    • beta sheet
    • loops and turns
  29. teritary structure of proteins
    3 dimensional shape of one chain
  30. quaternary structure of proteins
    arrangements of multiple chains to make a 3d strucutre
  31. forces that stabilize proteins
    • hydrophobic interactions
    • hydrogen bonds
    • salt bridges
    • disulfide bonds
    • (metal ion coordination)
  32. how does heat denature proteins?
    • jiggling around (kinetic energy) disrupts bonds
    • hydrogen
    • hydrophobic
    • salt bridges
    • (does not disrupt disulfide bonds)
  33. How does alcohol or urea denature proteins?
    alcohol and urea can form hydrogen bonds and will disrupt the hydrogen bonds of the protein structure
  34. How does extreme changes in pH denature proteins?
    • salt bridges affected
    • changes acid/base groups which alters the ions or locations they can form bonds
  35. How do reducing agents denature proteins?
    Reducing agents cause the disulfide bonds to break forming thiol groups.
  36. How do non-polar solvents denature proteins?
    they interact with the hydrophobic regions of the protein that are ususally tucked inside the shape.
  37. describe shape of graph of reaction rate if enzyme concentration is increased
    linear slope
  38. describe shape of graph of reaction rate if substrate concentration increased
    up and then plateau due to enzyme saturation
  39. describe shape of graph of reaction rate if temperature increases
    slope up then dramatic drop due to denatured enzyme
  40. describe shape of graph of reaction rate if pH increases
    slope up then slope down due to functioning at optimal pH

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview