Chapter 17 Terms

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Chapter 17 Terms
2011-12-13 21:52:32
AP American History

chapter 17 terms for nation of nations
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  1. Lincoln's Plan
    • "10 Percent Plan," outlined in a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
    • -when a minimum of ten percent of qualified voters took a loyalty oath to the Union --> could organize their own state governments
    • -new state constituion had to be: republican in form, abolish slavery, and provide for black education
    • --generous in granting pardons for Confeds
  2. Wade-Davis Bill
    • stricter plan for Reconstruction by Ohio and Maryland reps
    • -South temporarily ruled by military, one half white males take oath, restricted political power to hard-core Unionists
    • ----->Lincoln vetoed bill after it passed Congress bc too strict
  3. Andrew Johnson
    • racist and heavily prejudiced against southern planter "aristocrats"
    • -supported state's rights and opposed gvt aid in business
  4. Johnson Plan
    • Johnson's Reconstruction Program: loyalty oath for Southerners but excluded Confed officials from this, had to do to keep property, provisional governor from Feds drafted new constitution--> new state gvts, voters had to take new oath, once gvt formed --> Johnson withdrew troops and martial law
    • *unlike Lincoln, spoke only informally about requiring states to repeal secession ordinances, repudiate Confed debt, and ratify 13th amendment*
    • -------> FAILURE
  5. Black Codes
    • series of laws, passed by some states, often modelling "slave code"
    • -legalized marriages and allowed to hold property, sue and be sued
    • -could NOT serve in juries, testify against whites, or work as they pleased
    • -SC prohibited any labor but agricultural w/out license, MI prohibitd from buying/ renting land
    • ------> upset Nother, some blacks could be made servants
  6. Freeman's Bureau
    • provided emergency food, clothing, and medical care to war refugees (even white southerners) and setteled freedpeople on abandoned lands
    • -new bill gave Bureaus special courts to resolve freed people disputes and establisshed black schools
    • -------------> Johnson vetoed
  7. 14th Amendment
    • guarunteed repayment of war debt, disqualified prominent Confeds from holding offfice, and voted only congress could remove penalty, gave congress right to reduce representation of any state w/out impartial male suffrage, allowed North states to restrict suffrace to whites if they wished (would only punish south), and gave blacks right to vote
    • *defined an American citizen as anyone born in the U.S., neurtalized, and prohibits states from denying natural rights*
  8. Reconstruction Acts
    • all were passed over Johnson's vetoes
    • 1st: placed 10 unreconstructed states undr military commanders and that voters were to include blacks but not former high ranking confeds
    • --required new state legislatures to ratify 14th amend., after those steps, states could send delegates to Congress
    • 2nd: ordered local military to enforce acts
    • 3rd: upheld power of military commanders and congress in all matters
    • 4th: required ratification of constituion only by a majority of those voting rahter than registered voters
    • ------->June 1868, Congress had readmited 7 states
  9. Thaddeus Stevens
    • leading radical in House, advocated confiscation of r394 million acres of land from 70,000 "chief rebels" in the South
    • -wanted to give 40 acres to each freed person and sell rest to pay off debt
    • ---> proposals rejected
  10. Charles Sumner
    look up....
  11. Tenure of Office Act
    • forbade Johnson from removing any of the cabinet members w/out congressional approval
    • *was an attempt to prevent Johnson from removing Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, who was the last radical in the cabinet
  12. Impeachment
    • bc Johnson violated Tenure of Office Acts but mainly bc he obstructed reconstruction
    • -lawyers: Johsnons could be impeached only for indictable crime
    • -radicals: argued impeachment applied to polittical offenses as well as criminal ones
    • --->acquitted on basis of 7 republicans saying unconstitutional....
  13. Texas v White
    rules that the states do NOT have the right to secession
  14. Carpet Baggers
    Northerners who moved down to South w "worldy possessions in carpet bags" and held a majority of Southern political office- repubilcan
  15. Scalawags
    Southerners helping with reconstruction (traitors)
  16. Share Cropping
    • African Americans farmed on sep plots of land owned by white land-owner and by end of year owed white % of earnings/ crops
    • -hrashly exploitative and blacks went into debt
    • *gave blacks illusion of owning land*
  17. U.S. Grant
    • revolutionary war hero, Republican candidate for 1868 election
    • --->became president by black votes, white--> democratic
    • administration extremely corrupt
    • congress did not respect Grant and even passed and Amnesty Act revoking the 14th amendment and giving many ex-Confeds back the right to vote
  18. 15th Amendment
    • forbade any state the right to deny franchise on basis of rase
    • *didn't go further bc didn't want new immigrants to be able to vote*
    • -largely ratified by few states in South not previously re-admitted
    • ---------->largely hindered the women's suffrage mvmt
  19. Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • * last major piece of reoconstruction legislation
    • prohibited racial discrimination in all PUBLIC places AND rejected a ban on segregation of schools
    • --> barely enforced, struck down by Supreme Court in almost every aspect except for Juries
  20. Panic of 1873
    • diverted attention from Reconstruction to economic issues
    • severe depression over four years, three mil out of work
    • -congress debated whether or not to print greenbacks
    • --> sever loss of republican seats in congress and for first time since 1861, republicans lost majority in HOR
  21. Ku Klux Klan
    • paramilitary organization that broke up Republican mtgs, terrorized white and black republicans, prevented black citizens from voting and assassinated republican leaders
    • -founded in 1866 in TN, functioned as unofficial arms of Dem party
  22. Force Act/ K.K.K. Act
    • attempted to prohibit the rising power of the KKK
    • -made it illegal (a felony) to interfere w right to vote, authorized use of army and suspension of writ of habeus corpus
    • ---> forced KKK under ground, somewhat success
  23. Mississippi Plan
    • Democratic decision to use as much violence as needed to carry 1875 election
    • -Grant declined to send troops to MI to aid and Dems carried MI election, MI had "been redeemed"
  24. Rutherford B. Hayes
    • Ohio Govenor who ran fo rpresident in 1876 election (R) v Samuel Tilden of NY (D)
    • -Tilden had majority bc of violence preventing R voters
    • *states being fought over for election: SC, FL, and LA
    • ----> Republican Canvassing boards disqualified enough Dem votes for Hayes to win
    • **Hayes won BUt Republicans met w key Dems in Wormley Hotel in WA -----> Comp of 1877
  25. Compromise of 1877
    • after 1876 disputed election, Republicans met with key Dem officials in Wromley Hotel in WA:
    • -agreed to withdraw troops form South
    • -agreed to not oppose new South Democratic state gvts
    • and the South:
    • -accepted presidency of Hayes
    • -agreed to respect African American rights
    • -----> Republican gvts in LA and SC collapsed! South now in hands of Redeemers
  26. Radical Republicans
    look up...
  27. Grandfather Clause/ Literacy Test
    test created first in MI to rule out as many black votes as possible while keeping as many white votes as possible, late adopted throughout the south
  28. Birth of a Nation
    that movie we've been watching in class.... duh.