Psychology final

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  1. Smiling is to feeling as ______ is to ________.
    behavior; mental process.
  2. Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and Asian-American friends result from biological or cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of what?
    nature and nurture
  3. Mike Crampton's stockbroker has informed him that he has suffered substantial investment losses. When Mike tells his wife, she angrily responds, “I could have told you that your investment plan would fail!” Her comment best illustrates
    the hindsight bias
  4. Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, when offered a better job in another state, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates
  5. Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of a
  6. To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)
  7. Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
  8. After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty
    playing his guitar
  9. The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the
  10. When a person speaks, brain waves and blood flow
    are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the
    left hemisphere
  11. When Leanne heard about experimental evidence
    that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the evidence justified a cause-effect conclusion. Leanne's reaction best illustrates
    critical thinking
  12. A researcher was interested in determining whether
    her students' test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students' scores on a math test with their seating position. This study is an example of
    correlational research
  13. After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
    sensory adaptation
  14. The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the
    absolute threshold
  15. Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the
    sensory receptors
  16. People who pour less juice when given a tall, thin glass rather than a short, wide glass are misled by the depth cue known as
    horizontal- vertical illusion
  17. Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana mentally filled in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of
  18. Because Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the orgaizational principle of
  19. After learning that her new college roommate had
    experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, Erin incorrectly perceived her roommate's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of
    perceptual set
  20. When hearing the words “eel is on the wagon,” you would likely perceive the first word as “wheel.” Given “eel is on the orange,” you would likely perceive the first word as “peel.” This _______ best illustrates the organizational principle of closure.
    context effect
  21. Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin
    with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
    Classical Conditioning
  22. A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious,
    mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a
    conditioned stimulus
  23. A child who is punished for swearing at home but
    reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
  24. Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method
  25. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a _______ reinforcer
  26. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
  27. Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
    Observational learning
  28. Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits
    justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm
  29. During her psychology test, Kelsey could not
    remember the meaning of the term serial position effect. Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the ninth line of left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of
    automatic processing
  30. Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
    the spacing effect
  31. The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates _______ memory
  32. The ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between
    explicit and implicit memory
  33. Although Faustina can learn and remember how to read reversed mirror-image writing, she is unable to learn and remember the names of people to whom she has been introduced. Faustina is most likely to have suffered damage to her __________.
  34. Sherry easily remembers the telephone reservation number for Holiday Inns by using the mnemonic 1-800-HOLIDAY. She is using a memory aid known as the
    peg-word system
  35. When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used?
  36. When 80-year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her parents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The pictures served as powerful
    retrieval cues
  37. Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of
  38. Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful memories of instances when he thought his girlfriend was flirting with other men. David's experience best illustrates
    mood-congruent memory
  39. A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of
    an algorithm
  40. As he attempted to spell the word receive, Tim reminded himself “I before e except after c.” Tim's self-reminder best
    illustrates the use of
    a heuristic
  41. Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates
    confirmation bias
  42. Mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an older person must be indicative of Alzheimer's disease best illustrates the impact of
    the representativeness heuristic
  43. Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates
    functional fixedness
  44. The indelible memories of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy unduly inflated many people's estimates of the risks associated with air travel. This best illustrates the importance of
    the availability heuristic
  45. Bilingual children, who inhibit one language while using the other, can better inhibit their attention to irrelevant information. This has been called
    the bilingual advantage
  46. People's procedural memory of how to open the front door of their house is most likely to consist of
    stored knowledge
  47. A need refers to a
    physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
  48. An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n)
  49. Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of
    Drive-reduction theory
  50. For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to
    maintain homeostasis
  51. Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called
  52. On the basis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, one would be LEAST likely to predict that a
    starving person might sell his child to obtain food
  53. Research on the sexual response cycle indicates
    that enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable conception
  54. Compared with European teens, American teens
    have _____ rates of contraceptive use and _____ rates of pregnancy and abortion
    lower; higher
  55. When people's need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to
    commit suicide, psych disorders, physical illness
  56. During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in
    physiological arousal
    if they have just experienced orgasm.
  57. A problem that consistently interferes with one's ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called
    a sexual disorder
  58. Professor Langley emphasizes that premature sexual activity among high school students involves the interplay of alcohol consumption, mass media norms, and teens’ underestimation of their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates a
    bio psychosocial approach
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Psychology final
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