Geography December exam

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Geography December exam
2011-12-15 18:03:09

December exam review
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  1. Energy
    • -Power lets us do work
    • -Power to change things
  2. Known sources of energy
    * Fossil fuels

    * Water/ hydro

    * Wind

    * Solar

    * Biomass

    * Tidal

    * Geothermal

    * Nuclear
  3. Fossil fules
    Natural fuel formed in geological past from the remains of living orgamsims
  4. Coal foarmtion
    • -300 million years ago, beofre dinosres
    • Giant plants died in swamps --> millions of years later burried under dirt & water--> heat + presure + time = coal
  5. Oil and Gas foarmation
    • 300-400 million years ago...
    • Tiny sea plants and animals died--> their bodys landed on sea floor--> with time coverd with silt &sand --> within 50-100 million years under alot of layers of sand and silt--> heat and pressure turned the crops into oil and gas
  6. how do we reach the oil and gas deposits
    drilling down through layers of salt, silt and rock
  7. oils and gases are fiund in
    Sedimentary rock
  8. how is sedimentary rocks formed
    • accumulation of sediment or organic materials
    • ->likely to contain hydrocarbons including:
    • *sandstone, limestone, silstone and shale.
    • Oil and gas can get trapped in pockets underground such as where the rocks are folded into an umbrella shap.
  9. what is Crude oil
    mixture of hydrocarbons that are highly flammable
  10. what is crude oil made from
    made from organic matter fround in geological dformations in the earth
  11. appearance of crude oil
    usually blaack or brown
  12. what is crude oil usually found with
    • natural gas
    • -lighter form of gas cup over the patraleam
  13. how is crude oil separrted
    crud oil extracted from ground by drilling--> sent to refinery--> boiled/distiled into separte parts/fractions
  14. Synthetic crude
    • A mixture of hydrocarbons
    • Made by upgrading bitumen from oil sands
  15. Bitumen
    • Solid or semi-solid petroleum that cannot be pumped without being:
    • * heated
    • *diluted (Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water )
  16. Oil Refinery
    • Industrial procces plant where crude oil is processed and retined into usful petruleum products:
    • * gasoline
    • *asptalt
    • *diesel fuel
  17. three main types of power plants

    Nuclear power plant

    Thermal power
  18. Hydroelectricity
    Mechanical energy is produced by: dierctiong/harnessing/channeling moving water

    Water accumulated in reservoirs (dams)-->released ---> flows through pipe/penstock---> pushes against blades of the turbine--> rotating the generator---> produce energy.

  19. Nuclear energy
    Energy from the nucleus of an atom

    Nuclear fission: Atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms releasing energy

    Fission generates heat in reactor--->heat boils water into steam--->steam turns
    huge turbine blades---> turning of turbine blades generates energy---> make electricty.--->steam changed back into water--->cooled in sepoarate structure--->reused

  20. can water from nuclear power plant be reused?
    • yes
    • the water is sent to a separat structure at the power plant and is cooled down in a tower then reused
  21. what method is used in nuclear power plant
    Nuclear FISSION

    Not Nuclear fusion !!!
  22. what is different between nuclear power plant and most power plant?
    Nuclear power plan uses the heat given off fission as fuel, instead of burning fuel to produce electricty.
  23. Thermol Power
    • short viresion
    • Thermal power plant -> stored chemical energy in ff/rediactive substance--> converted into thermal energy (heat), mechanical energy (steam)--->electrical energy

    • convires transport coal into power plant---> passes through pollwoires which grines coal into powder---> furnes burns coal---> pipes surronding the furnes whihc are fild with water---> water boills until turns into steam---> steam is transfered under great pressure and high speed through larg pipes-->turns generator---> produce electricty.
    • steam is colled by cold water from nar by lake and reused again and again

  24. what is thermal enegy?
  25. what is mechanical energy
  26. OPEC
    Organisation of 12 diffrenet countries which export Petroleum
  27. What is OPEC mandate?
    • -Protect intrest of it's member contries
    • -claiming to ensure stabilzed prices international oil markets -view to elimenate harmfull and unessery fluctuations in prices
  28. Opec is dedicated to...
    • being an efficent and reguler supplier of petroleum consuming nations
    • while at the same time ensuring a fair return of their capital petruleum investors
  29. what year was the energy crisis
  30. why did the energy crisis occure in 1970s?
    US decision to resupply the Israel military during the Yom Kippur war
  31. What did the Arab members of Opec proclaimed?
    oil embargo against the USA and Western Eroupe
  32. how did the energy crisis end
    • promise of negotiation settlement between Israel and syria was sufficent to convince arab oil producers
    • leave the embaro in march 1974

    Israel agreed to pull out of some parts of the Golan Heights
  33. Resolts of OPEC
    • -OPEC has lost some of it's power to other oil producing contries
    • -Motiviates people to look for alternative enrgy
    • -Developing contries have great effect on developed contries
  34. Cartel
    • Formal explicit agreement among competing companies to work together fixing prices.
    • *the membersagree to sell their product/service at the same price contrulling the supply of product to customers and territoriess dividing profits among all members of cartel.
  35. what do we call a cartel were companies join together to fix prices?
    coagreement collusion
  36. what nations are biggest producers of oil
    • Russia
    • Saudia Arabia
    • United States
    • China
    • Iran
  37. Top oil consumers
    • U.S.
    • China
    • Japan
    • India
    • Russian federation
  38. Geopolitical dynamics behind oil?
    Self sufficient
    • Self sufficient:
    • because then the countrie will not have to relie on unstable oil resources worring that there might not be reciving oil the next day or be blackmaild to do something against their will

    • Benefits
    • They don't have to pay for transportaion,
    • avoid possible accidents on the way (subatage)
    • they get to decied on their own prices creating more stable econmy
  39. Conventional oil
    Crude oil that flows naturally or that can be pumped without being heated or diluted
  40. Unconventional oil
    • -Oil that is does not naturally flow or can be pumped
    • -produced or extracted using techniques other than the traditional oil well method.
    • -Needs to be converted into conventional oil by human hand using heat water and pressure instead of it happening natruly by earth
  41. How do fossil fuels pollute?
    relses CO2

  42. Bitumen
    solid or semi-solid petroleum that cannot be pumped without being heated or diluted
  43. Greenhouse effect
    -causes global warming of the Earth surface due to CO2 and other gases in atmosphere that trap the heat of the sun

    -CO2, Methane, Nitrous oxide, water vapour

    • -cause from:
    • human activity, volcanoes, ocean currents, cloud cover
  44. What is the Kyoto protocol
    • -International agreement setting targets for industrialized countries to cut their greenhouse emissions
    • *CO2
    • *Methane
  45. what contries pulled out of the Kyoto protocol?
    • U.S.
    • Canada
  46. why did U.S. and Canada pull out of the Kyoto protocol?
    • #1 hurt the economy
    • -developing countries don't have to reach any specific target
    • -China and India also don't have any specific targets
    • -Not want to be embersed of not meeting the critria
    • -Want to make a new protocol were all countries have to sign the contract decrese greenhouse emmissions
  47. Oil Peak
    Point were oil is used/extracted the most and the amount of oil decreses
  48. How is electrcity produced in Manitoba? and how is it mainly generated in the USA
    Manitoba-Hydroelectricity plant

  49. Watershed
    • Land area that drains into a common body of water
    • EX: lake,river, rain, snow

    Water flows down from highest points to lowest point into a common lowest point water shed

  50. Divide
    Line that connects the highest points in an area
  51. Major watersheds in canada
    • Pacific
    • Arctic
    • Atlantic
    • Hudson Bay
    • Gulf of Mexico
  52. water % breakdown on earth
  53. Importance of wetlands
    • -Habitat for plants aand animals
    • -Nutrition
    • -Economic benefits
    • -clean water: help maintain overall health of the eneviorment by filtering and controlling the water that passes through them.
  54. types of forests
    • Commercial
    • Non commercial
  55. Commercial
    Tress harvested for profit
  56. Non commercial
    Trees not suitable for harvest/ grow to far apart for profitable harvest
  57. why non commercial forests less sutible for harvest?
    • -they are found in northern portion
    • -area colder climet = bad harder soil
  58. why are commercial forests better sutitable for harvest and profit?
    • -In southern portion
    • -Area with a good climate and soil for harvesting larg quantity of trees (ground contains more nutrition)
  59. what are the different ways of harvesting trees?
    • -Clear cutting
    • -Shelterwood logging
    • -Selective cuting
  60. Clear cuting
    Cuting/ removing all trees in an area leaving the landscape barren

    *barren-too poor to provid alot or any vegetion
  61. cons of clear cut
    • -soil left barren, making it more difficulte to grow new vegetion
    • -potential for erosion
  62. Shelterwood loging
    • -cutting up to 70% of the trees in an area
    • - leaving small patches of old growth to provide seeds for regeneration
    • -done in places were trees have grown relatively evenly
  63. cons of shelterwod loging
    • -more costly
    • -time consuming
  64. Selective cutting
    • -Only certain type/ size of tree is harvested
    • -Many trees are left to stabilize water flow and erosion
  65. Cons of selective cutting
    • -Very costly
    • -Extremely time consuming
    • -Reforestration: harder for new trees to grow due to compation with allready mature trees for resurces and sunlight.
  66. diffreneces developed and developing countries
    *The implecation of the term developed and developing is that developing countries will attain developed status at some point un the future*
  67. how do we set developing and developed countries apart?
    • -Gross domestic products per capital (GDP) $+4000
    • -Political economic stability -human health
    • -Humen development index (HDI)
    • -Economic stability
  68. why is the system of classification between developing and developed countries is criticized?
    • many countries dislike the compering 'developed countries' to 'undeveloped countries' becasue:
    • they do not desire to follow/develop the traditional 'Western' model of economic development
  69. 8 Millennium Goals
    • -Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • -Achieve universal primary education
    • -promote gender equality and empower women
    • -reduce child mortality
    • -improve maternal health
    • -combat HIV aids malaria and other
    • -enure enviromental sustainability
    • -develop a global partnership for development
  70. conspicuous consumption
    • -buying goods and services mainly to display income or wealth.
    • -In a mind of conspicuous consumer this means reaching or keeping certine level of social status.
  71. Invidious consumption
  72. voluntary simplicity
    • Choose a more simple life were level of consumption is lowerd deliberatly no matter what is the previuse statuse level is high/low

  73. Slow movement
    • Slow down fast pace life reflect on past present and future.
    • Retriving from some of the daily activeits to find more self and family time, reducing stress.
  74. Metalic minerals
    • Minerals which are refined from the group of materials known as metal
    • some are: Precious metals: gold, silver,bronze, platinum... Strength: Iron Unique properties: Copper (excelent conductor of electricity)
  75. Non-metallic/industrial minerals
    • Possess useful qualities which are not metalic
    • Industrial minerals: gravel,potash soapstone, salt,asbestos, diamonds. each of the minerals has unque qualitty that makes them useful
  76. Privatization
    change from governmental to private control or ownership
  77. Nationalization
    changing something from private to state ownership or contro
  78. alternative energies
    • Energy sources which are not conventional (Fossil fuels) donot relese CO2.
    • Includes: solar, wind, wave, tidal, hydroelectric and geothermal
  79. Evaporation
    • -Water liquid --> gas
    • -Occurs only on the surface of a liquid
    • -Occurs when surface of liquid is exposed allowing molecules to escape = form water vapour --> rise up and form a cloud
  80. Condensation
    • water vapour --> liquid
    • Generally occures in atmosphere
    • warm air rises -->cools lossing its capacity to hold water vapour
    • extra water vapour condenses forming cloud droplets
  81. Water Transport
    • -movment of water through atmosphere over oceans-land
    • -some of the earth moisture transport is visible as clouds
    • -consist of ice crystals and tiny water droplets
    • -propelled from place to place by: jet streams/ land and sea breezes
  82. Precipitation
    • primary way of water transport
    • atmosphere-->surface
    • forms: rain, hail snow,freezing rain
  83. Transpiration
    • similar to precipition
    • loss of water vapour from parts of plants (like sweating)
    • mainly from leaves but also from: steams, flowers, roots
  84. Groundwater
    • Subterranean water is held in cracks and pore spaces
    • groundwater can flow to support streams
    • can be tapped by wells
  85. Water table
    Leavel at which water stands in a shallow well
  86. hydroelectricity pros and cons
    • Econmy
    • pro:
    • renewable
    • creats renenve
    • cheap & reliable for companies
    • flood control, imigation
    • con:
    • costly
    • larg amount of public money

    • Equity
    • pros:
    • provide cheap power for local people and for export
    • provides jobs
    • cons:
    • flood destroys trapping &fishing
    • safety hazards of high voltage power lines that are near communities
    • Envioment
    • pro:
    • no CO2 emissions
    • renewable energy
    • con:
    • alter the seasonal flows of some rivers which impact wildlife and natural flooding
    • lands flooded to creat dams
    • aquatic life can be killed
  87. problems with hydro
    • Fossil fuels are needed to build dams
    • Displace people and animal species
    • Rivers carry nutrients which important for soil to grow food and allow rainwater to rechatge the aquifer