Natural fuel formed in geological past from the remains of living orgamsims
-300 million years ago, beofre dinosres
Giant plants died in swamps --> millions of years later burried under dirt & water--> heat + presure + time = coal
Oil and Gas foarmation
300-400 million years ago...
Tiny sea plants and animals died--> their bodys landed on sea floor--> with time coverd with silt &sand --> within 50-100 million years under alot of layers of sand and silt--> heat and pressure turned the crops into oil and gas
how do we reach the oil and gas deposits
drilling down through layers of salt, silt and rock
oils and gases are fiund in
how is sedimentary rocks formed
accumulation of sediment or organic materials
->likely to contain hydrocarbons including:
*sandstone, limestone, silstone and shale.
Oil and gas can get trapped in pockets underground such as where the rocks are folded into an umbrella shap.
what is Crude oil
mixture of hydrocarbons that are highly flammable
what is crude oil made from
made from organic matter fround in geological dformations in the earth
appearance of crude oil
usually blaack or brown
what is crude oil usually found with
-lighter form of gas cup over the patraleam
how is crude oil separrted
crud oil extracted from ground by drilling--> sent to refinery--> boiled/distiled into separte parts/fractions
A mixture of hydrocarbons
Made by upgrading bitumen from oil sands
Solid or semi-solid petroleum that cannot be pumped without being:
*diluted (Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water )
Industrial procces plant where crude oil is processed and retined into usful petruleum products:
three main types of power plants
Nuclear power plant
Mechanical energy is produced by: dierctiong/harnessing/channeling moving water
Water accumulated in reservoirs (dams)-->released ---> flows through pipe/penstock---> pushes against blades of the turbine--> rotating the generator---> produce energy.
Energy from the nucleus of an atom
Nuclear fission: Atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms releasing energy
Fission generates heat in reactor--->heat boils water into steam--->steam turns huge turbine blades---> turning of turbine blades generates energy---> make electricty.--->steam changed back into water--->cooled in sepoarate structure--->reused
can water from nuclear power plant be reused?
the water is sent to a separat structure at the power plant and is cooled down in a tower then reused
what method is used in nuclear power plant
Not Nuclear fusion !!!
what is different between nuclear power plant and most power plant?
Nuclear power plan uses the heat given off fission as fuel, instead of burning fuel to produce electricty.
Thermal power plant -> stored chemical energy in ff/rediactive substance--> converted into thermal energy (heat), mechanical energy (steam)--->electrical energy
convires transport coal into power plant---> passes through pollwoires which grines coal into powder---> furnes burns coal---> pipes surronding the furnes whihc are fild with water---> water boills until turns into steam---> steam is transfered under great pressure and high speed through larg pipes-->turns generator---> produce electricty.
steam is colled by cold water from nar by lake and reused again and again
what is thermal enegy?
what is mechanical energy
Organisation of 12 diffrenet countries which export Petroleum
What is OPEC mandate?
-Protect intrest of it's member contries
-claiming to ensure stabilzed prices international oil markets -view to elimenate harmfull and unessery fluctuations in prices
Opec is dedicated to...
being an efficent and reguler supplier of petroleum consuming nations
while at the same time ensuring a fair return of their capital petruleum investors
what year was the energy crisis
why did the energy crisis occure in 1970s?
US decision to resupply the Israel military during the Yom Kippur war
What did the Arab members of Opec proclaimed?
oil embargo against the USA and Western Eroupe
how did the energy crisis end
promise of negotiation settlement between Israel and syria was sufficent to convince arab oil producers
leave the embaro in march 1974
Israel agreed to pull out of some parts of the Golan Heights
Resolts of OPEC
-OPEC has lost some of it's power to other oil producing contries
-Motiviates people to look for alternative enrgy
-Developing contries have great effect on developed contries
Formal explicit agreement among competing companies to work together fixing prices.
*the membersagree to sell their product/service at the same price contrulling the supply of product to customers and territoriess dividing profits among all members of cartel.
what do we call a cartel were companies join together to fix prices?