ch 3.txt

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ch 3.txt
2011-12-13 22:54:02
SCIT 1407 anatomy physiology

Chapter 3: Cellular Level of Organization
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  1. The cell is surrounded by?
    Extracellular fluid
  2. The cell membrane is also known as?
    Plasma membrane or plasmalemma
  3. What are the general functions of the cell membrane?
    Physical isolation, regulation and exchange with the environment, sensitivity
  4. Because the phospholipids molecules in it form two layers it is called?
    Phospholipid bilayer
  5. Ions and other small water-soluble materials can cross the membrane only by passing through?
  6. Are not completely enclosed by membranes, and all of their components are direct contact with the cytosol.
    Nonmembranous organelles
  7. Are isolated from the cytosol by phospholipid membranes, just as the cell membrane isolate the cytosol from the extracellular fluid.
    Membranous organelles
  8. Cells nonmembranous organelles include?
    Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, proteasomes
  9. Cells membranous organelles include?
    Endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and nucleus.
  10. Cytoskeleton of all cells include?
    Mirofilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules.
  11. This is made of the protein actin and anchors the cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the cell membrane.
  12. All our cells contain these hollow tubes built from the globular protein tubulin. EX. Spindle apparatus.
  13. All animal cells capable of undergoing cell division contain this. They are cylindrical structures composed of short microtubules.
  14. Organelles responsible for protein synthesis. Its components are formed in the nucleoli.
  15. Organelles associated with the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates.
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
  16. What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?
    A workshop and shipping depot. It is where many newly synthesized proteins undergo chemical modification and where they are packaged for export to their next destination to the golgi apparatus
  17. What makes the RER rough?
    Ribosomes that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
  18. What are the three major functions of the golgi apparatus?
    It modifies and packages secretions, such as hormones or enzymes, for release through exocytosis. It renews or modifies the cell membrane. It packages special enzymes within vesicles for use in the cytosol.
  19. What is the function of lysosomes?
    Defense against disease
  20. How is bacteria removed from the cells?
    Liquids and organic debris is removed from the extracellular fluid by enclosing them in a small portion of the cell membrane, which is then pinched off to form a vesicle.
  21. What is the function of the mitochondria?
    ATP productions through aerobic respiration
  22. How is energy production produced in the mitochondria?
    Although most of the ATP production occurs inside mitochondria, the first step takes place in the cytosol (during glycolisis). In this reaction sequence, called glyolysis, each glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
  23. The nucleoplasm also contains?
    Ions, enzymes, RNA, and DNA nucleotides, small amounts of RNA and DNA.
  24. Most nuclei contain several dark staining areas called?
  25. What components are formed by the nucleoli?
  26. It is the DNA in the nucleus that stores the instructions for protein synthesis and this DNA is organized into structures called?
  27. What is transcription?
    Binding of RNA polymerase is the first step in the process of transcription, the production of RNA from a DNA template. It means to copy out or rewrite.
  28. What is translation?
    Each codon along the mRNA strand will bind a complementary anticodon on a tRNA molecules.
  29. What molecules provide the physical link between codons and amino acids?
  30. Permeability of cell membranes are said to be?
  31. Movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is called?
  32. What is simple diffusion?
    Alcohol, fatty acids, and steroids can enter cells easily, because they can diffuse through the lipid portions of the membrance. EX. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and lipid-soluble drugs.
  33. What are the three characteristics of osmosis?
    Diffusion of water molecules across a membrane. Occurs across a selectively permeable membrane that is freely permeable to water, but not freely permeable to solutes. Water will flow across a membrane toward the solution that has the higher concentration of solutes, because that is where the concentration of water is lowest.
  34. What is a hypotonc solution?
    Water will flow into the cell causeing it to swell up like a balloon.
  35. What is a hypertonic solution?
    Will lose water causing cell to shrivel
  36. Cell may ruture, releasing its contents this event it is called?
  37. Cell shrivels and dehydrates, this event is called?
  38. When nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids, are insoluble in lipids and too large to fit through membrane channels; these substances can be passively transported across the membrane by membrane-bound carrier proteins in a process called?
    Facilitated diffusion
  39. A high-energy bond (in ATP or another high-energy compound) provides the energy needed to move ions or molecules across the membrane is called?
    Active transport
  40. Homeostasis within the cell depends on the ejection of sodium ions and the recapture of lost potassium ion. This exhance is accomplished through the activity of?
    Sodium-potassium exchange pump
  41. What is endocytosis?
    Movement into the cell
  42. What are the three major types of endocytosis?
    Receptor-mediated endocytosis. Pinocytosis. Phagocytosis.
  43. What is phagocytosis?
    Cell eating
  44. What happens during interphase?
    A cell performs all its normal function and if necessary prepared for cell division
  45. Over the next 6-8 hours the cell duplicates its chromosomes and is part of interphase. This phase is called?
    S Phase
  46. Begins when the centromere of each chromatid pair splits and the chromatids separate. The two daughter chromosomes are now pulled toward opposite ends of the cell along the chromosomal microtubules. This stage is?
    Stage 3: Anaphase
  47. Each new cell prepares to return to the interphase state. The nuclear membranes form the nuclei enlarge and the chromosomes gradually uncoil. This stage is?
    Stage 4: Telophase
  48. When a gene functionality is basically gone, the cell loses the ability to create a particular protein and therefore to perform any function involving that protein. Each time another gene switches off, the cells functional abilities become more and more restricted. This specialization process is called?
  49. Malignant cells may also travel to distant tissues and organs and establish secondary tumors. This dispersion is very difficult to control and is called?