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How is an isometric contraction different from from an isotonic contraction?
The isometric muscle contraction has no change in length, while the isotonic muscle contraction has a tension amount that is less than the load
What type of information is carried by the afferent nervous system?
Afferent nervous system carries sensory info from receptors to CNS
What type of info is carried bye the efferent nervous system?
Efferent nervous system carries moto info from CNS to effectors
How does continuous propagation work?
- -initial segment depolarizes to +30mv
- -na+ ions diffuse along axon & bring segment #2 to threshold
- -many na+ channels open; segment #2 depolarizes to +30mv
- -segment #3 to threshold, etc
How does saltatory propagation?
- -initial segment depolarizes to +30mv
- -na+ ions diffuse to depolarizes 1st node to threshold
- -node #1 depolarizes to +30mv
- -na+ ions diffuse & bring node #2 to threshold
List the three meningeal layers in order from outside to inside.
- dura mater
- arachnoid mater
- pia mater
What type of neurons travel through the dorsal root?
What type of neurons travel through the ventral root?
The dorsal root and ventral root merge to form:
What structures are innervated by the axons that travel through the dorsal ramus?
the skin and skeletal muscles of the back
What structures are innervated by the axons that travel through the ventral ramus?
- ventrolateral body surface
- structures in the body wall
- the limbs
Will the white ramus contain myelinated or unmyelinated axons?
True or False: The gray ramus will contain unmyelinated axons.
List four examples of activities controlled by the general reflex centers.
What do the two superior colliculi provide?
reflex response to visual stimuli
What do the two inferior colliculi provide?
reflex response to auditory stimuli
What is the function of the habenular nuclei?
emotional response to odors
What hormone is secreted by the pineal gland and what role does that hormone play in the human body?
- regulates your daily sleeping and waking cycles
The region of the brain which determines what sensory information you are made aware of and what gets "tuned out" is called the:
Your satiety center is located in which hypothalamic nucleus?
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates appetite and releases hormones that control the pituitary gland?
The thirst center and internal thermostat of the human body is located in which hypothalamic nucleus?
The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates your:
daily circadian patterns
Are preganglionic fibers myelinated or unmyelinated?
Will the postganglionic fibers be myelinated or unmyelinated?
Are parasympathetic preganglionic fibers long or short?
Will the parasympathetic postganglionic fibers be long or short?
The parasympathetic division is also known as the:
feed and breed, or resting division
The neurotransmitter released by parasympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is:
What type of receptor is on the parasympathetic postganglionic neuron?
What happens when acetylcholine binds to a nicotinic receptor?
sodium channels open causing the postganglionic neuron to depolarize
What class of receptor is on the target tissue in the parasympathetic division?
What does the muscarinic receptor effect?
potassium permeability; if potassium leaves, target tissue will repolarize
Effects of parasympathetic activation:
- constriction of airways
- constriction of pupils
- decreased metabolic rate
- decreased HR and BP
- increased smooth muscle contraction
- increased urinary activity
- increased blood flow to the reproductive system
- increase in nutrient absorptio
- nincrease in secretion from the digestive glands
Are sympathetic preganglionic fibers long or short?
Will sympathetic postganglionic fibers be long or short?
The short preganglionic neurons are sometimes called the:
What is the function of an alpha 1 receptor?
increase the release of Ca from the SR, increasing smooth muscle contraction
What is the function of an alpha 2 receptor?
lowers cAMP levels, inhibitory effect
What is the function of a beta 1 receptor?
increase HR, BP, metabolism, and lipolysis
What is the function of a beta 2 receptor?
cause smooth muscle to relax
What is the function of a beta 3 receptor?
cause an increase in fat breakdown
What type of receptor is on the sympathetic postganglionic neuron?
What type of neurotransmitter will sympathetic postganglionic neurons release?
What type(s) of receptors are on the target tissue within the sympathetic division?
alpha and beta receptors
Effects of sympathetic activation:
- decreased rate of digestion
- decreased urinary activity
- decreased blood flow to reproductive organs
- increased HR and BP
- increased sweating
- increased rate of respiration
- increased metabolism
- increased mental alertness