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6
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2011-12-13 22:59:33
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  1. How is an isometric contraction different from from an isotonic contraction?
    The isometric muscle contraction has no change in length, while the isotonic muscle contraction has a tension amount that is less than the load
  2. What type of information is carried by the afferent nervous system?
    Afferent nervous system carries sensory info from receptors to CNS
  3. What type of info is carried bye the efferent nervous system?
    Efferent nervous system carries moto info from CNS to effectors
  4. How does continuous propagation work?
    • -initial segment depolarizes to +30mv
    • -na+ ions diffuse along axon & bring segment #2 to threshold
    • -many na+ channels open; segment #2 depolarizes to +30mv
    • -segment #3 to threshold, etc
  5. How does saltatory propagation?
    • -initial segment depolarizes to +30mv
    • -na+ ions diffuse to depolarizes 1st node to threshold
    • -node #1 depolarizes to +30mv
    • -na+ ions diffuse & bring node #2 to threshold
  6. List the three meningeal layers in order from outside to inside.
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  7. What type of neurons travel through the dorsal root?
    sensory neurons
  8. What type of neurons travel through the ventral root?
    motor neurons
  9. The dorsal root and ventral root merge to form:
    spinal nerve
  10. What structures are innervated by the axons that travel through the dorsal ramus?
    the skin and skeletal muscles of the back
  11. What structures are innervated by the axons that travel through the ventral ramus?
    • ventrolateral body surface
    • structures in the body wall
    • the limbs
  12. Will the white ramus contain myelinated or unmyelinated axons?
    myelinated axons
  13. True or False: The gray ramus will contain unmyelinated axons.
    True
  14. List four examples of activities controlled by the general reflex centers.
    • sneezing
    • coughing
    • vomiting
    • swallowing
  15. What do the two superior colliculi provide?
    reflex response to visual stimuli
  16. What do the two inferior colliculi provide?
    reflex response to auditory stimuli
  17. What is the function of the habenular nuclei?
    emotional response to odors
  18. What hormone is secreted by the pineal gland and what role does that hormone play in the human body?
    • melatonin
    • regulates your daily sleeping and waking cycles
  19. The region of the brain which determines what sensory information you are made aware of and what gets "tuned out" is called the:
    thalamus
  20. Your satiety center is located in which hypothalamic nucleus?
    ventromedial nucleus
  21. Which nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates appetite and releases hormones that control the pituitary gland?
    arcuate nucleus
  22. The thirst center and internal thermostat of the human body is located in which hypothalamic nucleus?
    anterior nucleus
  23. The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates your:
    daily circadian patterns
  24. Are preganglionic fibers myelinated or unmyelinated?
    myelinated
  25. Will the postganglionic fibers be myelinated or unmyelinated?
    unmyelinated
  26. Are parasympathetic preganglionic fibers long or short?
    long
  27. Will the parasympathetic postganglionic fibers be long or short?
    short
  28. The parasympathetic division is also known as the:
    feed and breed, or resting division
  29. The neurotransmitter released by parasympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is:
    acetylcholine
  30. What type of receptor is on the parasympathetic postganglionic neuron?
    nicotinic receptor
  31. What happens when acetylcholine binds to a nicotinic receptor?
    sodium channels open causing the postganglionic neuron to depolarize
  32. What class of receptor is on the target tissue in the parasympathetic division?
    muscarinic receptor
  33. What does the muscarinic receptor effect?
    potassium permeability; if potassium leaves, target tissue will repolarize
  34. Effects of parasympathetic activation:
    • constriction of airways
    • constriction of pupils
    • decreased metabolic rate
    • decreased HR and BP
    • increased smooth muscle contraction
    • increased urinary activity
    • increased blood flow to the reproductive system
    • increase in nutrient absorptio
    • nincrease in secretion from the digestive glands
  35. Are sympathetic preganglionic fibers long or short?
    short
  36. Will sympathetic postganglionic fibers be long or short?
    long
  37. The short preganglionic neurons are sometimes called the:
    thoracolumbar division
  38. What is the function of an alpha 1 receptor?
    increase the release of Ca from the SR, increasing smooth muscle contraction
  39. What is the function of an alpha 2 receptor?
    lowers cAMP levels, inhibitory effect
  40. What is the function of a beta 1 receptor?
    increase HR, BP, metabolism, and lipolysis
  41. What is the function of a beta 2 receptor?
    cause smooth muscle to relax
  42. What is the function of a beta 3 receptor?
    cause an increase in fat breakdown
  43. What type of receptor is on the sympathetic postganglionic neuron?
    nicotinic
  44. What type of neurotransmitter will sympathetic postganglionic neurons release?
    norepinephrine
  45. What type(s) of receptors are on the target tissue within the sympathetic division?
    alpha and beta receptors
  46. Effects of sympathetic activation:
    • decreased rate of digestion
    • decreased urinary activity
    • decreased blood flow to reproductive organs
    • increased HR and BP
    • increased sweating
    • increased rate of respiration
    • increased metabolism
    • increased mental alertness

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