A field study performed by Muzafer and Carolyn sheriff and their colleagues that examined the causes and consequences of conflict between two groups of boys at Robbers Cave State Park in Oklahoma.
Realistic group conflict theory
A conceptual framework arguing that conflict between groups stems from competition for scarce resources, including food, territory, wealth, power, natural resources and energy.
The markedly greater competitiveness of groups when interacting with other groups, relative to the competiveness of individuals interacting with other individuals.
An explanation of intergroup conflict arguing that hostility caused by frustrating environmental circumstances is released by taking hostile actions against members of other social groups.
The belief that one’s own tribe, region, or country is superior to other tribes, regions or countries
Outgroup homogeneity basis
Tendency to assume that the members of other groups are very similar to each other, whereas the membership of one’s own group is more heterogeneous
Law of small numbers
Tendency to base sweeping generalizations about an entire group on observations of a small number of individuals from that group
Group attribution error
Tendency to assume that specific group members’ personal characteristics and preferences are similar to the preferences of the group to which they belong
Socially shared set of cognitive generalizations about the qualities and characteristics of the members of a particular group or social category
Contact and superordinate
A superordinate goal is one that can only be attained if the members of 2 or more groups work together by pooling their efforts and resources
Reducing social categorization tendencies by minimizing the salience of group memberships and stressing the individuality of each person in the group
Reducing social categorization tendencies by collapsing groups in conflict into a single group or category
Reducing the impact of social categorization on individuals’ perceptions by making salient their memberships in 2 or more social groups or categories that are not related to the categories that are generating ingroup–outgroup tensions
The psychological reaction (mood, feelings, emotions) evoked by a setting)
A psychological reaction to situations and experiences that are so cognitively, perceptually, or emotionally stimulating that they tax or even exceed the individual’s capacity to process incoming information
The quality of the fit between the human occupants and the physical situation
Both understaffing (not enough people) and overstaffing (too many people) can be detrimental
Equilibrium model of communication
Personal space, body orientation, and eye contact define the level of intimacy of any interaction.
High density makes unpleasant situations more unpleasant but pleasant situations more pleasant
Promote interaction among group members
Discourage or prevent interaction among group members
The tendency for members of a group to comment immediately after the person sitting opposite them
Types of territories
primary, secondary, public
Areas that are maintained and used exclusively by individuals or groups on a relatively permanent basis
These areas are not owned by the group members, but because the members use such an area regularly, they come to consider it “theirs”
Occupants can prevent intrusion while they are physically present, but they relinquish all claims when they leave
The tendency for individuals and groups to gain and advantage over others when interacting in their home territory.
Individuals seeking treatment for a psychological problem who meet as a group with a trained mental health professional
An approach to group therapy in which clients are taught to understand the unity of their emotions and cognitions through a leader-guided exploration of their behavior in the group situation.
Interpersonal group psychotherapy
An approach to the treatment of psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems that emphasizes the therapeutic influence of interpersonal learning.
Cognitive–behavioral group therapy
The treatment of interpersonal and psychological problems through the application of behavioral principles in a group setting.
Interpersonal learning groups
A group formed to help individuals extend their self–understanding and improve their relationships with others
T–groups (training groups)
A skill development training intervention in which individuals interact in unstructured group settings and then analyze the dynamics of that interaction.
Encounter (sensitivity training)groups
A form of sensitivity training that provides individuals with the opportunity to gain deep interpersonal intimacy with other group members.
Self–help (support) groups
A group of people who meet regularly to help one another cope with or overcome a problem they hold in common
Universality & hope
when people experience a tragedy/grief/sadness and realize that other people feel the same way (universality of the problem) they began to feel hope
Downward social comparison
when an individual is experiencing particularly negative outcomes, these individuals can serve as targets for downward social comparison. Such comparisons reduce group members’ won sense of victimization and can raise their overall sense of self-esteem.
Upward social comparison
individuals who are coping well with many difficulties and these upward social comparison targets can encourage members by symbolizing the possibility of progress.
Vicarious Learning –– Social learning theory
Aconceptualization of learning developed by Albert Bandura that describes the processes by which new behaviors are acquired by observing and imitating the actions displayed by models, such as parents and peers.
The processes by which new behaviors are acquired by observing and imitating the actions displayed by models, such as parents and peers
Collectives (be able to describe & identify them)
A relatively large aggregation or group of individuals who display similarities in action and outlook.
A temporary gathering of individuals usually in a public place, who are present in the same general vicinity and share a common focus
The spontaneous outbreak of atypical thoughts, feelings, or actions in a group or aggregation, including psychogenic illness, common hallucinations and bizarre actions.
Trends (fads, crazes, fashion trends)
the general direction in which the attitudes, interests and actions of a large segment of a population change over time, including fashion trends, fads and crazes.
A collective movement making a deliberate, organized attempt to achieve a change or resist a change in a social system.
Emergent norm theory
An explanation of collective behavior suggesting that the uniformity in behavior often observed in collectives is caused by members’ conformity to unique normative standards that develop spontaneously in those groups.
A gathering of people in a public location whose members torment, tease or goad others.