psych 383

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lyss126
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123569
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psych 383
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2011-12-13 23:58:47
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group psych
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psych 383
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  1. Robbers Cave Experiment
    A field study performed by Muzafer and Carolyn sheriff and their colleagues that examined the causes and consequences of conflict between two groups of boys at Robbers Cave State Park in Oklahoma.
  2. Realistic group conflict theory
    A conceptual framework arguing that conflict between groups stems from competition for scarce resources, including food, territory, wealth, power, natural resources and energy.
  3. Discontinuity effect
    The markedly greater competitiveness of groups when interacting with other groups, relative to the competiveness of individuals interacting with other individuals.
  4. Scapegoat theory
    An explanation of intergroup conflict arguing that hostility caused by frustrating environmental circumstances is released by taking hostile actions against members of other social groups.
  5. Ethnocentrism
    The belief that one’s own tribe, region, or country is superior to other tribes, regions or countries
  6. Outgroup homogeneity basis
    Tendency to assume that the members of other groups are very similar to each other, whereas the membership of one’s own group is more heterogeneous
  7. Law of small numbers
    Tendency to base sweeping generalizations about an entire group on observations of a small number of individuals from that group
  8. Group attribution error
    Tendency to assume that specific group members’ personal characteristics and preferences are similar to the preferences of the group to which they belong
  9. Stereotypes
    Socially shared set of cognitive generalizations about the qualities and characteristics of the members of a particular group or social category
  10. Contact and superordinate
    A superordinate goal is one that can only be attained if the members of 2 or more groups work together by pooling their efforts and resources
  11. Decategorization
    Reducing social categorization tendencies by minimizing the salience of group memberships and stressing the individuality of each person in the group
  12. Recategorization
    Reducing social categorization tendencies by collapsing groups in conflict into a single group or category
  13. Cross–categorization
    Reducing the impact of social categorization on individuals’ perceptions by making salient their memberships in 2 or more social groups or categories that are not related to the categories that are generating ingroup–outgroup tensions
  14. Ambience (atmosphere)
    The psychological reaction (mood, feelings, emotions) evoked by a setting)
  15. Overload
    A psychological reaction to situations and experiences that are so cognitively, perceptually, or emotionally stimulating that they tax or even exceed the individual’s capacity to process incoming information
  16. Synomorphy
    The quality of the fit between the human occupants and the physical situation
  17. Staffing Theory
    Both understaffing (not enough people) and overstaffing (too many people) can be detrimental
  18. Equilibrium model of communication
    Personal space, body orientation, and eye contact define the level of intimacy of any interaction.
  19. Density–intensity hypothesis
    High density makes unpleasant situations more unpleasant but pleasant situations more pleasant
  20. Sociopetal spaces
    Promote interaction among group members
  21. Sociofugal spaces
    Discourage or prevent interaction among group members
  22. Steinzor effect
    The tendency for members of a group to comment immediately after the person sitting opposite them
  23. Types of territories
    primary, secondary, public
  24. Primary
    Areas that are maintained and used exclusively by individuals or groups on a relatively permanent basis
  25. Secondary
    These areas are not owned by the group members, but because the members use such an area regularly, they come to consider it “theirs”
  26. Public
    Occupants can prevent intrusion while they are physically present, but they relinquish all claims when they leave
  27. Home advantage
    The tendency for individuals and groups to gain and advantage over others when interacting in their home territory.
  28. Psychotherapy groups
    Individuals seeking treatment for a psychological problem who meet as a group with a trained mental health professional
  29. Gestalt groups
    An approach to group therapy in which clients are taught to understand the unity of their emotions and cognitions through a leader-guided exploration of their behavior in the group situation.
  30. Interpersonal group psychotherapy
    An approach to the treatment of psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems that emphasizes the therapeutic influence of interpersonal learning.
  31. Cognitive–behavioral group therapy
    The treatment of interpersonal and psychological problems through the application of behavioral principles in a group setting.
  32. Interpersonal learning groups
    A group formed to help individuals extend their self–understanding and improve their relationships with others
  33. T–groups (training groups)
    A skill development training intervention in which individuals interact in unstructured group settings and then analyze the dynamics of that interaction.
  34. Encounter (sensitivity training) groups
    A form of sensitivity training that provides individuals with the opportunity to gain deep interpersonal intimacy with other group members.
  35. Self–help (support) groups
    A group of people who meet regularly to help one another cope with or overcome a problem they hold in common
  36. Universality & hope
    when people experience a tragedy/grief/sadness and realize that other people feel the same way (universality of the problem) they began to feel hope
  37. Downward social comparison
    when an individual is experiencing particularly negative outcomes, these individuals can serve as targets for downward social comparison. Such comparisons reduce group members’ won sense of victimization and can raise their overall sense of self-esteem.
  38. Upward social comparison
    individuals who are coping well with many difficulties and these upward social comparison targets can encourage members by symbolizing the possibility of progress.
  39. Vicarious Learning –– Social learning theory
    Aconceptualization of learning developed by Albert Bandura that describes the processes by which new behaviors are acquired by observing and imitating the actions displayed by models, such as parents and peers.
  40. Vicarious learning
    The processes by which new behaviors are acquired by observing and imitating the actions displayed by models, such as parents and peers
  41. Collectives (be able to describe & identify them)
    A relatively large aggregation or group of individuals who display similarities in action and outlook.
  42. Crowd
    A temporary gathering of individuals usually in a public place, who are present in the same general vicinity and share a common focus
  43. Mass delusions
    The spontaneous outbreak of atypical thoughts, feelings, or actions in a group or aggregation, including psychogenic illness, common hallucinations and bizarre actions.
  44. Trends (fads, crazes, fashion trends)
    the general direction in which the attitudes, interests and actions of a large segment of a population change over time, including fashion trends, fads and crazes.
  45. Social movements
    A collective movement making a deliberate, organized attempt to achieve a change or resist a change in a social system.
  46. Emergent norm theory
    An explanation of collective behavior suggesting that the uniformity in behavior often observed in collectives is caused by members’ conformity to unique normative standards that develop spontaneously in those groups.
  47. Baiting Crowd
    A gathering of people in a public location whose members torment, tease or goad others.

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