Bio Final 4

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  1. 1/2N
    number of y chromosomes in gene pool
  2. 2N
    number of genes in gene pool
  3. 3/2N
    number of x chromasomes in gene pool
  4. 3N
    time to coalesce for x chromosomal sex-linked alleles
  5. 4N
    time to coalesce for autosomal alleles
  6. ALIVE Study
    silent versus replacement substitutions aka synonymous versus nonsynonymous in SI in V3 region producing a transitional branch
  7. Allelic Diversity
    comparing allelic frequencies within and between demes
  8. Ancestral Reconstruction
    • infer an ancestral protein that no longer exists based on maximum likelihood and Baysian methods
    • can be constructed from amino acids and tested for functionality
  9. Bottleneck Effect
    a large population had one or more generations of small size in the past
  10. Conservative Selection
  11. Directional Selection
  12. Evolution by Shifting Balance
    • interactions between natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow in a metapopulation, which causes it to explore selective peaks
    • drift: shifts average excess of alleles for fitness in a deme
    • selection:directs a deme toward a different peak
    • gene flow: migrants from deme that reaches highest peak add alleles to neighboring demes to increase metapopulation
  13. Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection
    • rate of increase in fitness of a population at any time equals its additive genetic variance in fitness at that time in a single locus model
    • natural selection is and destroys heritable variance in fitness
  14. Fitness (W)
    • viability, mating success, fecundity
    • fertility
  15. Forces of Evolution
    • mutation: causes variance within a population and between populations
    • genetic drift: variation between populations increases but is decreased within a population
    • gene flow: variation within a population is increase but is decreased between populations
    • natural selection:
  16. Founder Event
    • bottleneck coincides with a new geographic settlement
    • drastically alters allele frequencies
    • change non-additive to additive genetic variance
  17. Functional Density
    proportion of amino acid sites that perform specific functions
  18. gene flow
    movement of genes between demes
  19. General Functions
    charge, isoelectric point, solubility
  20. Geographic Range Expansion
    younger haplotypes can have geographic distributions outside of ranges of ancestral haplotypes
  21. HIV-1
    • evolves a million time faster that nuclear genomes
    • retrovirus that first attacks macrophages and later T cells
  22. Ideal Population
    constant size, random mating, poisson fecundity, non-overlapping generations, even sex ratios, no selection
  23. Inbreeding Effective Size
    accumulation of identity by descent
  24. Isolation by Distance
    • Sewall Wright-most geneflow is between neighboring demes
    • gametic differences among populations are proportional to geographic distance
  25. Lemba Sailors
    • married Bantu women
    • supported by y chromosomal haplotype tree
  26. m
    fraction of a deme that migrates to another one before mating
  27. Macrophage
    white blood cell that attacks virus
  28. Metapopulation
    • large population subdivided geographically into many local demes
    • most matings occur within a local population but sometimes individuals mate outside their local deme
  29. Monomorphic Condition
    no broad-sense heritability
  30. N
    time to coalesce for y chromosomal sex-linked alleles
  31. Ne Effective Population Number
    size of ideal population whose rate of random genetic drift equals that of the real population
  32. Neutral Alleles
    • non-Darwinian evolution
    • rate of neutral evolution=(rate of mutation)(rate of loss of alleles)
    • rate of loss=(100/(% habitat remaining))(# of fragments)
  33. Polymorphic Condition
    broad-sense heritability exists
  34. Pseudogene
    gene that lost function and therefore evolves rapidly because mutations are neutral alleles
  35. Reduces overall genetic variation
    creates linkage disequilibrium
  36. Salinas, Dominican Republic
    founder event turns little girls into boys
  37. Selective Equilibrium
    • no additive variance in fitness
    • selection moves a population toward it
  38. Synonymous
    mutation site that does not alter amino acid aka neutral allele
  39. UEP
    time needed for 1% amino acid sequence divergence between homologous proteins
  40. V3
    region in envelope protein gene in HIV-1
  41. Variance Effective Size
    change of allele frequency
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Bio Final 4
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