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– The years of Captain James Cook’s voyages to Hawaiʻi
– British Royal Navy Captain and Fellow of the Royal Society of London
– King of Hawaiʻi Island who invited Captain Cook to port in Kealakekua
– Bay on Hawaiʻi Island where Captain Cook was allowed to port on his first visit, and where he ultimately died on his return trip
– The time of the year when Captain Cook arrived in Hawaiʻi
– The identity that was associated with Captain Cook upon his arrival to Hawaiʻi
What lead to the conflict between Cook
and Kalaniopu’u? Could this conflict have been avoided? Explain your answer.
A cutter or rowboat was taken from Cook’s ship and he went ashore to demand its return. He went to Kalaniopuʻu’s residence with a few men and guns, and tried to take him hostage until the boat was given back. A conflict ensued which ultimately led to Cook’s death and the deaths of some of his men, as well as the deaths of many Hawaiians. This could have been avoided if a more diplomatic approach was taken; an understanding between the two parties could have been reached through dialogue. If Cook had petitioned Kalaniopuʻu for the boat’s return, the king could have negotiated its return by the guilty party, thereby avoiding any unnecessary loss of life.
How were Cooks actions similar to the
“Gunboat Diplomacy” of 1826, 1839, and 1843?
Cooks actions were similar to all of the other instances of “Gunboat Diplomacy,” because he threatened the head of state, holding the king responsible for the actions of the Hawaiian constituency (e.g. the people). His actions, as well as those taken in 1826, 1839, and 1843, were examples of foreign aggression against the native populace. All of these actions were acts of war against the Hawaiian kingdom, as the threat of military force was applied in every situation. The use of guns by Cook and all of the others suggest that their foreign policy was more about guns than it was about diplomacy.
– The arrival of the first American Protestant missionaries to Hawaiʻi
John C. Jones
– First American diplomat to Hawaiʻi who enlisted the help of Captain Dixey Wilkes to force the payment of a “debt” incurred by the Sandalwood trade
The trade that helped to create the first Hawaiian national debt
The year that John C. Jones had Captain Dixey Wilkes force the payment of the Sandalwood “debt;” it was the first use of gunboat diplomacy in the Hawaiian Islands.
French captain who used gunboat diplomacy to establish the Catholic Church in Hawaiʻi and gain preferential treatment for French citizens in 1839; this type of gunboat diplomacy became known as religious gunboat diplomacy.
British captain who used gunboat diplomacy to seize control of the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1843; the Kingdom was returned by Admiral Richard Thomas the same year.
Ua mau ke ʻea o ka ʻaina i ka pono-
“The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness;” these were the words of Kauikeaouli when the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was restored in 1843.
Mahele Nui –
The Great Mahele; the process in which the rights to land and undivided interests in land were clarified, making fee simple private land ownership possible.
Land Commission –
The government entity established to resolve land claim disputes
The longest reigning monarch in Hawaiʻi’s history; he established Hawaiʻi as a constitutional monarchy and initiated the Mahele Nui process (the Great Mahele).
– Minister of the Interior for the Hawaiian Kingdom who played a critical part in establishing the Great Mahele; he was formerly the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Aliʻi, Konohiki, Makaʻainana
– The traditional land tenure relationship between the Aliʻi, Konohiki, and Makaʻainana was ended as a result of the Great Mahele.
Parcel of land tended to by the Makaʻainana for the Konohiki; a traditional form of taxation, it was ended by the Great Mahele and was replaced by other forms of taxation (i.e. property taxes, income taxes, etc.).
Parcel of land tended to by the Makaʻainana for the Aliʻi; a traditional form of taxation, it ended as a result of the Great Mahele and was replaced by other forms of taxation (i.e. property taxes, income taxes, etc.).
Ahupuaʻa access rights –
The right of the people who lived within an ahupuaʻa to access the resources within that land division
Sugar Plantations –
The rise of these came with the start of the American Civil War. The Hawaiian sugar plantations became the source of economic and political power that had a profound influence on Hawaiian society, some of which still exists today.
American Civil War 1861-1865
– This war made Hawaiian sugar an important industrial export to the U.S. and made the sugar industry an important economic power in Hawaiʻi.
How does the American Civil War affect
the sugar industry in Hawaiʻi?
- The American Civil War caused the sugar plantations in the South to become neglected, with some of them actually becoming battlefields. Because of this, the sugar from Hawaiʻi became the primary source of sugar to the U.S. This made sugar a valuable commodity in Hawaiʻi, and the Hawaiian sugar industry became a viable corporate industry with political, economical, and social influences over Hawaiian society. This industry had such
- an influence over Hawaiian society that the Hawaiian government entered into an agreement with the U.S. called the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, which allowed an
- exchange of goods to go untaxed between both countries. Through this treaty, Hawaiian sugar was
- allowed to enter the U.S. without taxation.
Last king of Hawaiʻi; called “The Merry Monarch,” he inspired a revival of Hawaiian culture and the arts. He also negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty with the U.S. in 1875 and was coerced into signing the 1887 Bayonet Constitution.
Hoʻoulu Lāhui –
“Increase the Nation;” this was an initiative by Kalākaua to help invigorate the people and revive hula and other ancient Hawaiian traditions. He also wanted to increase the agricultural and commercial potential of Hawaiʻi.
Treaty negotiated by Kalākaua and the U.S. in 1875 that allowed for the exchange of certain goods without taxation between the U.S. and Hawaiʻi
1887 constitution –
Known as the Bayonet Constitution, this treaty took political power away from the king and took the political voice away from the people.
Why is the 1887 constitution called the "Bayonet Constitution", and how did it take power away from Hawaiians?
- The 1887 constitution was called the "Bayonet Constitution" because it was forced on Kalākaua and he was made to sign it under threat of violence. This constitution stripped the monarch of decision-making authority, and disenfranchised 4/5 of the Hawaiian
- voters through a variety of new voter requirements that were designed to limit voting to the business members of society. It also replaced the House of Nobles with 24 Hawaiian League members. These measures made many
- Hawaiians unhappy, and most of them wanted a new constitution to be promulgated
Puʻuloa (Pearl Harbor)
– Natural harbor on the island of Oʻahu that was coveted by the United States government; limited use of it was granted to the U.S. Navy as a condition of the 1887 Constitution (Bayonet Constitution); the U.S. Navy was given permanent use of it as a result of the “annexation” of Hawaiʻi to the United States.
Last reigning monarch of Hawaiʻi and its only reigning queen, her government was overthrown by a group of insurgents supported by the U.S. marines.
J. L. Stevens
– U.S. Foreign Minister who ordered the U.S. marines ashore to assist in the overthrow of the Hawaiian government by a group of insurgents
Committee of Safety
– A group of insurgents commonly referred to as the Annexation Club, they were responsible for the Overthrow and “Annexation” of Hawaiʻi
– U.S. President at the time of the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom; he was sympathetic to the cause of the annexationists. (FOR)
U.S. President after the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom; he declared the Overthrow to be “an act of war,” withdrew the Annexation Treaty from Congress, and launched an investigation into the situation by Georgia Senator James Blount, resulting in the Blount Report. Cleveland also entered into two executive agreements with Queen Liliʻuokalani to restore her governmental authority over the Hawaiian kingdom. (AGAINST)
U.S. President at the time of the “Annexation;” he was a pro-annexation president who was dedicated to the imperial expansion of the United States and was interested in making it a world power.
What were the main issues leading to
the 1893 overthrow? –
Many Hawaiians were unhappy with the 1887 Bayonet Constitution, because it disenfranchised 80% of them. They asked Queen Liliʻuokalani to promulgate a new constitution, which she was prepared to do in early 1893. Because her new constitution would have taken back her decision-making authority in government affairs, and would have removed much of the influence of the Committee of Safety, they were spurned to action to prevent her from doing so. They asked U.S. Minister John L. Stevens to land troops to protect them so that they could declare themselves the new government in power. Because their ultimate design was to annex the Hawaiian Islands to the U.S., the transition would be smoother if John L. Stevens was to recognize them as the de facto government of Hawaiʻi. Their desire to become part of the U.S. was driven by their yearning for profits and to put an end to the McKinley Tariff, which levied a hefty tax on sugar exports to the U.S.
Hui Aloha ʻAina
– Hawaiian political action group founded right after the Overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom; its goals were to support the restoration of Queen Liliʻuokalani’s government, and to prevent annexation to the United States. It was one of the two groups that circulated petitions against annexation to the U.S. in 1897.
Hui Kalai ʻAina
Hawaiian political action group founded in 1889 with the purpose of dissolving the 1887 Constitution (e.g. Bayonet Constitution) and restoring the 1864 Constitution; it was one of the two groups that circulated petitions against annexation to the United States in 1897.
Petitions of 1897
Petitions circulated in 1897 that garnered more than 38,000 signatures, proving that the majority of people in Hawaiʻi did not want annexation.
Spanish American War –
The event that sparked American territorial expansion and helped to define the United States as a world power.
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