genetic traits of continuous variation that exhibit complex inheritance. The inheritance involves multipe genes and environmnetal factors
variance
extent to which individuals vary from the mean
V_{x} = 1/n SUMMATION (X_{i}- X)^{2}
standard deviation
square root of the variance; denoted by sigma
Normal distribution
predict the percentage of observations that will fall within a certain distance of the mean; 95.5% of observed value s will be within two standard deviations of the mean
covariance
genotypes are no distributed randomly across the environments; average product of the deviation of one variable from itw own mean times the deviation of the other variable from its mean
broad sense heritability (H^{2})
measure of the proportion of the observed phenotypic variation that is due to genetic differences in the population; ranges from 0 (all environmental, no genetic component) to 1 (all variation due to genetic variation)
H^{2}= V_{g}/V_{x} = V_{g}/V_{g}+V_{e
}
phenotypic variance
V_{x}=V_{g}+V_{e}+2cov ge
Vx= phenotypic variance
Vg= genetic variance (variation due to genotype)
Ve= envirnomental variance (variation due to environment)