Biology Semester 1 Lesson 4 Study Guide

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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 4 Study Guide
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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 4 Study Guide
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  1. The sodium-potassium pump transports _?_.
    A. K+ into and out of the cell
    B. Na+ into and out of the cell
    C. Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
    D. Na+ during some cycles and K+ during other cycles
    C. Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Exocytosis is a _?_.
    A. Mechanism by which cells ingest other cells
    B. Transport process in which vesicles are pinched off from the inside of the cell membrane to form pouches inside the cell
    C. Type of passive transport
    D. Way for cells to release large molecules
    D. Way for cells to release large molecules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. During diffusion, molecules tend to move _?_.
    A. Randomly, with no apparent pattern
    B. From an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
    C. At equal rates across a membrane
    D. From an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
    D. From an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The part of a cell that functions to maintain homeostasis relative to its external environment is the _?_.
    A. Cell membrane
    B. Cytosol
    C. Golgi apparatus
    D. Nucleus
    A. Cell membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. State the relative solute concentrations for the following solution; indicate the direction of osmosis for each.

    Hypotonic solution
    Concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than concentration in the cytosol. The solution outside is hypotonic, whene this happens water diffuses into the cell until equilibrium is established.
  6. State the relative solute concentrations for the following solution; indicate the direction of osmosis for each.

    Hypertonic solution
    Concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the cytosol, then it is hypertonic; Water diffuses out of the cell until equilibrium is established.
  7. State the relative solute concentrations for the following solution; indicate the direction of osmosis for each.

    Isotonic Solution
    Concentrations are equal to solute molecules outside and inside the cell, it is isotonic; Water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates.
  8. Compare and contrast the processes of endocytosis and exocytosis.
    Endocytosis is when cells ingest internal fluid, macromolecules, and large particals, and other cells. Exocytosis is when a particle(s) are released from the vesicle.
  9. Explain the relationship between the following pairs of terms.

    Grana, Stroma
    Grana is the site of the light reaction of photosynthesis, and stroma is the gel like matrix in chloroplasts. They're related because they are both in photosynthesis and in a plant cell.
  10. Explain the relationship between the following pairs of terms.

    Chemiosmosis, ATP synthase
    Chemiosmosis relies on the ATP synthes for an electrical currency for protons across the thykaloid membrane. ATP synthase catalyzes the process.
  11. Write the equation for photosynthesis. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O Light energy C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
    • Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are related because the products of one are the reactants of the other.
  12. Answer the following question about CAM plants.

    What is a CAM plant?
    A CAM plant is a water conserving type of plant.
  13. Answer the following question about CAM plants.

    In what types of environments are most CAM plants found?
    CAM plants can be found in hot dry places.
  14. Answer the following question about CAM plants.

    How is the CAM pathway advantageous for that type of environment?
    The CAM pathway is an advantage for that environment because they can store and conserve water for long periods of time in dry hot weather.
  15. Answer the following question about CAM plants.

    How is the CAM pathway a disadvantage for CAM plants?
    A disadvantage for CAM plants is that they grow slowly.
  16. Stomata opens and closes in response to changes in the CO2 concentration inside a leaf. If the CO2 concentration inside a green leaf decreased, would you expect the stamata to open or close? Why?
    Open, to let in more CO2 for photosynthesis.
  17. What is the difference between passive and active transport?
    Passive transport does not require enery. While active transport does require energy from the cell.
  18. A cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy
    Photosystem
  19. A series of molecules through which electrons pass
    Electron transport chain
  20. An acceptor of electrons lost from a chlorophyl a
    Primary electron acceptor
  21. An opening in a plant leaf for gas exchange
    Stoma
  22. An organelle of plant cells where photosynthesis occurs
    Chloroplast
  23. An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms
    Heterotroph
  24. An organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances
    Autotroph
  25. Biochemical pathway in which CO2 is converted into glucose using ATP
    Calvin Cycle
  26. Carbon-fixing process in which CO2 is bound to a 4-carbon intermediate compound
    C4 pathway
  27. Initial reaction in photosynthesis, triggered by the absorption of light
    Light reaction
  28. Process by which plants use sunlight, CO2 and water to produce carbohydrates and O2
    Photosynthesis
  29. Substance that gives another substance its color
    Pigment
  30. Synthesis of organic compounds from CO2
    Carbon fixation
  31. How would the world be different if C4 plants and CAM plants had not evolved? Explain.
    The world would be different because there would be no plants in hot and dry climates on earth, there would be no plants to create oxygen in that area.
  32. Suppose a major biological disaster caused all autotrophic organisms on Earth to die. What do you predict would happen to the hetrotrophs? Why?
    The heterotrophs would be non-existing because they're would be no where to get they're oxygen from also, there would be no vegetables or fruits.
  33. A reactant used in the Calvin cycle is _?_.
    A. CO2
    B. Glucose
    C. H2O
    D. O2
  34. A. CO2
  35. Accessory pigments _?_.
    A. Absorb colors of light that chlorophyll cannot
    B. Add color to plants but do not absorb light
    C. Are not involved in photosynthesis
    D. Receive electrons from the electron transport chain of photosystem 1
  36. A. Absorb colors of light that chlorophyll cannot
  37. What product of the light reactions of photosynthesis is released from the plant?
    A. NADPH
    B. ATP
    C. H2O
    D. O2
    D. O2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Carbon atoms are fixed into organic compounds in _?_.
    A. The light reactions
    B. The Calvin cycle
    C. Electron transport chains
    D. Photosystems I and II
    B. The Calvin cycle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following environmental factors will cause a rapid decline in the photosynthesis rate if it rises above a cetain level?
    A. Light intensity
    B. Carbon dioxide
    C. Temperature
    D. Oxygen
    C. Temperature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Organic compounds that are made from the Calvin cycle are classified as _?_
    A. Amino acids
    B. Lipids
    C. Carbohydrates
    D. All of the above
    C. Carbohydrates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis _?_.
    A. Decreases endlessly
    B. Decreases to a minimum level and then levels off
    C. Increases up to a maximum level and then levels off
    D. Increases endlessly
    C. Increases up to a maximum level and then levels off
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. As carbon dioxide levels increase, the rate of photosynthesis _?_.
    A. Increases up to a maximum level and then levels off
    B. Increases endlessly
    C. Decreases endlessly
    D. Decreases to a minimum level and then levels off
    A. Increases up to a maximum level and then levels off
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. A cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter
    Phagocyte
  44. Actively transports sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into a cell
    Sodium-potassium pump
  45. An organelle that accumulates and releases water to maintain osmotic pressure
    Contractile Vacuole
  46. Bursting of a cell
    Cytolysis
  47. Difference in concentration of a substance across a distance
    Concentration gradient
  48. Method of active transport in which a cell takes in extracellular fluids
    Pinocytosis
  49. Movement of particles from a region of higher density to a region of lower density
    Diffusion
  50. Movement of water from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a permeable membrane
    Osmosis
  51. Pressure exerted by incoming water on the inside of cell walls
    Turgor pressure
  52. Process by which a cell engulfs large particles
    Phagocytosis
  53. Proteins in a cell membrane that form a pore through which ions pass
    Ion Channel
  54. Shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution
    Plasmolysis
  55. State that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
    Equilibrium
  56. Transport of a substance across a cell membrane with the aid of carrier proteins
    Facilitated diffusion
  57. Transports substances across a cell membrane
    Carrier protein

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