Biology Semester 1 Lesson 5 Study Guide

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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 5 Study Guide
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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 5 Study Guide
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  1. Glocolysis takes place _?_.
    A. In eukaryotic cells only
    B. Only in the absence of oxygen
    C. Only in the presence of oxygen
    D. In the cytosol
    D. In the cytosol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. During glycolysis, glucose is _?_.
    A. Completely broken down and all its stored energy is released
    B. Converted to CO2
    C. Converted to three two-carbon compounds
    D. Partially broken down and some of its stored energy is released
    D. Partially broken down and some of its stored energy is released
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The starting substance of the krebs cycle, which is regenerated at the end of the cycle, is _?_.
    A. Pyruvic acid
    B. Oxaloacetic acid
    C. Acetyl CoA
    D. Citric acid
    B. Oxaloacetic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The Krebs cycle _?_.
    A. Breaks down acetyl CoA producing CO2
    B. Breaks down pyruvic acid producing acetyl CoA
    C. Generates most of the ATP produced in aerobic respiration
    D. Is an anaerobic process
  5. A. Breaks down acetyl CoA producing CO2
  6. The electron transport chain _?_.
    A. Splits water molecules into protons, electrons, and oxygen
    B. Does not need oxygen
    C. Is located in the cell's nucleus
    D. Transfers most of the energy from glucose to ATP
    D. Transfers most of the energy from glucose to ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. During cell division, the DNA in eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled into structures called _?_.
    A. Chromosomes
    B. Histones
    C. Autosomes
    D. Centromeres
    A. Chromosomes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Humans have 46 chromosomes in all cells except sperm and egg cells. How many of these chromosomes are autosomes?
    A. 44
    B. 2
    C. 23
    D. 46
    A. 44
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. If a sexual organism has a diploid chromosome number of 16, how many chromosomes do its sperm or egg cells contain?
    A. 32
    B. 16
    C. 2
    D. 8
    D. 8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Prokaryotic cells reproduce by a process called _?_.
    A. Binary fission
    B. Cytokinesis
    C. Meiosis
    D. Mitosis
  11. A. Binary fission
  12. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is copied during which stage of interphase?
    A. G0
    B. G2
    C. G1
    D. S2
    D. S2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides by a process called _?_.
    A. Mitosis
    B. Cytokinesis
    C. Binary fission
    D. Meiosis
    B. Cytokinesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What happens during synapsis?
    A. Cytoplasm divides
    B. Chromosomes line up next to their homologues
    C. DNA is copied
    D. Spindle fibers disappear
    B. Chromosomes line up next to their homologues
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. During crossing-over, portions of chromatids _?_.
    A. Break off and attach to aadjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
    B. Double the amount of DNA in each chromosome
    C. Move from autosomes to sex chromosomes
    D. Separate from each othr and move to opposite poles of the cell
  16. A. Break off and attach to aadjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
  17. List and describe the four main phases of mitosis.
    Phase 1 is called Prophase, begins with shortening and coiling of DNA into Rod-Shaped chromosomes. Phase 2 Metaphase, chromosomes line up in the midline of the dividing cell. Phase 3 is called Anaphase, chromatids of each chromosome start moving to opposite poles of the cell. Phase 4 is telophase/cytokenisis, the chromosomes reach opposite poles of the cell, a cleavage furrow is then formed.
  18. In meiosis, explain how crossing-over ensures genetic variation.
    Crossing over ensures genetic variation because during this process, chromosomes that make up exchange portions of their chromatids during sypnapsis, resulting in the exchange of genes.
  19. Briefly describe the steps in binary fission. In what type of organism does this process occur?
    Takes place in a prokaryotic cell. Steps include: DNA is copid, the cell begins to divide, cell grows twice its size before dividing, cell divides completely, you end up with 2 identical haploid cells.
  20. Explain why your muscles become fatigued and sometimes develop cramps when you exercise to strenously.
    Muscles feel fatigued and can develop cramps because you're cell uses the oxygen at a faster rate than it can be replaced. So the cell uses a last resort lactic acid, if theres a buildup of lactic acid then thats the cause of you're cramps.
  21. Write the overall equation for photosynthesis.
    6CO2 + 6H2O + energy> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
  22. Write the overall equation for the complete oxidation of glucose in cellular respiration.
    C6 H 12 O6 + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (energy)
  23. Compare the previous two equaitons. Explain how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are related.
    Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are related because they are products of eachother.
  24. List a way that mitosis differs from meiosis.
    Mitosis and meiosis differs from eachother because mitosis is the division of the nucleus and meiosis is the process when it reduces the number of chromosomes in a new cell by half.
  25. Discuss the role of haploid cells in reproduction.
    Haploid cells combine to form a new organism, has the roll because of sex cells in humans have only one set of chromosomes and they need another set to combine into one.
  26. Compare the efficiencies of cellular respiration and glycolysis in terms of energy production.
    Glycolysis only captures 2% of energy available from glucose, while cellular respiration captures 39% of energy available in glucose, cellular respiration is by far more efficien.
  27. Compare and contrast lactic acid fementation with alcoholic fermentation.
    Both lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation provides adition energy. Lactic fermentation converts pyruvic acid into enerygy and Alcoholic fermentation converts pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol. The product of lactic acid fermentation is lactic acid.
  28. How is cell division related to cancer?
    Cancer is uncontolled cell division. If theres not enough proteins that can controll cell division, cells can divide rapidly cause growths or mutations.
  29. Breakdown of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen
    Fermentation
  30. Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes
    Homologues
  31. Chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
    Autosome
  32. Comples of proteins and Dna strands that are loosely coiled
    Chromatin
  33. Graphical display of an individual's chromosome arranged in homologous pairs
    Karyotype
  34. Micrograph of chromosomes visible during metaphase
    Karyotype
  35. One of a pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual
    Sex chromosome
  36. One of the two strands of a chromsome
    Chromatid
  37. Typer of protein found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells
    Histone
  38. Define CHEMIOSMOSIS
    In chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP.
  39. Define CYTOKINESIS
    The division of the cytoplam of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cells nucleus by mitosis or meiosis.
  40. Define GAMETE
    A haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote.
  41. Define MITOCHONDRIA
    In eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP.
  42. Define OOGENESIS
    The production, growth, and maturation of an egg or ovum.
  43. Define POLAR BODIES
    A short-lived producct of the formation of gametes by meiosis.
  44. Spermatogenesis
    The process by which male gametes form.
  45. Explain the relationship between the pair of terms

    Cellular respiration, glycolysis
    Glycolysis is the first step of respiration.
  46. Explain the relationship between the pair of terms

    Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration
    Aerobic requires O2; anaerobic does not.
  47. Explain the relationship between the pair of terms

    Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
    Both are steps of aerobic respiration.
  48. Explain the relationship between the pair of terms

    Mitosis, meiosis
    Mitosis produces identical cells; meiosis reduces the chromosome number.
  49. Explain the relationship between the pair of terms

    Diploid, haploid
    Cell will have either both sets of chromosomes or 1 set of chromosomes.

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