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what are the three major lineages of the excavates
fonicata, parabasalids, euglenozoa
Whate are the differences between fonicata, parabasalids and euglenozoa
- fornicata are mostly parasitic
- parabasalids are mostly symbiotic with insects and some are pathogenic in humans
- euglenozoa are photo. euglenids and parasitic
What is a pellicle?
found only on euglenoids they are ridges on the cell surface and maintains body shap of the euglena
pellicles allow for distinct movement of euglenids called...
euglinoids have one or 2 flagella
how do euglnids sense light
eyespot with caretenoids and paraflagellar rods (flavin)
what are some interesting structural features of euglenids
light sensing, metaboly, 2 flagella, startch storage granules, pelllicles, secondary plastids (through secondary endosym)
in what ways are euglenids used as model systems
- microbial geotaxis- directed movement of an organsim using Earth's gravitiy for orientation
- evolution of endosymbiosis
- enviornmental quality- indicators of water pollution...
what is the difference of a trypanosome in mammal versus fly
- in mammal they are long, slender and in reproductive form. the E source is glycolysis. mitochondria is repressed
- in fly they are short stmpy and non reprod. E source is proline. Mitochondira active
trypanosoma brucei causes....
african sleeping sickness
Trypanosoma cruzi causes...which...
chagas disease which is transmitted by kissing bugs and is chronic and debilitating.
T?F Heterolobosea are the sister to the euglenids
the primary host of the chomalveolates was red or green algae. and they products of sinlge ________ event
red algae. secondary endosym.
most common eukaryote in soil is... describe some important features
cercozoa. part fot he chromalveolates. lack mouths so phagocytosis. part of the Rhizaria which are dominant predators on earth for 550 mill yrs
shell with Calcium carbonate. important fossil record
secondary symbiosis, red algae acquired. has chlorophyl a and c 2 unequal flagella, present only in gametes. brown algae
Describe the diatom stramenophiles
common as phytoplankton, unicellular, cell wall made of silica, 2 halves, adults lack flagella, generally non motile
Describe the oomycetes in the stramenophiles
they are water molds, 2 flagella, most famous as plant pathogens, not phtosyenthetic
genus of major plant pathogens
what are some shared characteristics of the chromalveolates and alveolates
cell surface underly sac like strcutures. tubular crisate in mito. and unique flagella or cillia
Describe the Ciliates in the alveolates (which are part ofthe chromalveolates)
found almost anywhere with water, heterotrophic/mixotrophic, have cillia. 2 diff nuclei.
what is the diff between the diploid micronucleus and the polyploid macronucleus?
diploid micronucleus used for reproduction. polyploid macronucleus used for cell function or metabolism
Describe the apicomplexans
parasitic, nonflagellated, prod. spores, cause malaria,
Describe the dinoflagellates
belong to the alveolates, flagellated protists, use chlorophyll a, c and fucoxanthin, chromosomes attatched to nuclear membrane, red tides. symbionts (zooxanthellae)
describe the ejectisome, a unique feature of the cryptophytes
organelle that forcible ejects stuff out of the cell
cryptophyte nucleomorphs shes evidence of ______ endosymbiosis. whate is some evidence that supports this claim
tertiary. multiple membranes, nucleus of former red algae,
describe the glaucophytes
they have unique chloroplasts called cyanelle have chlorophyl a and phyocbiliproteins.
what are rhodophytes?
never flagellated, cell walls with cellulose, store photo. prod. as startch, (those three are shared with plants) only have chlo. a with a variety of assesory pigments.
describe the caulerpa taxifolia and why it is infamous
spreads rapidly and threatens eelgrass habitats, now illegal in CA
describe the feeding cylcle of the slime molds
they act as individual amobae, when food exhausted they make multicell pseudoplasmodium
sister group of animals is...
T/F Rotifers are not protists
describe the ecological role of the fungi
- saprobes- degrade ligin and cellulose
- predators- consume protists and microscopic animals like nematodes
- mutulists- mycorrhisae with plant roots
what are defining characterists of fungi
- closely related toanimals
- obligate heterotrophs
- usually nonmotile
- absorptive nutrition
- store E as glycogen
- chitinous cell walls
fungi that sporalate on dung.
the largest living organism is...
a fungi called armillariella part of the basidiomycota
T/F Ascomycota is sister to Basidiomycota
is the association between fungus (usually ascomycota) and a photbiont like alga or cyanobacterium and sometimes both
Discuss the T. Gondii presentation
- 1. T. gondii lives intracellularly and avoids host immune response
- 2. transported from bird or rat to cat directly to human or from animal to human.
- 3. asymptomatic unless immunocompromised or pregnant
- 4. no vaccine, hard to get rid of cysts
- 5. alters behavior of rodent to so it can be eaten by cat
Describe Bacterial Antibiotics
- 1. most antibiotics intefer with the synthesis of protein like with ribosome, or enzyme activity
- 2. some interfere with DNA replication, RNA synthesis, cell wall synthesis
- 3. penicillin inhibits proteen but also breaks down cell wall. interferes with transpeptidae that catalyzes celll wall synthesis
- 4. tetra cyclines are a group of antibiotics that target ribosomes and prevents aminoacul- tRNA from binding
- 5. resistance can be caused by mutation which causes over production of efflux pumps that pump out antibiotics decrease membrane permeability, or change binding site where antibiotic may normally go
Describe the Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus
- 1. caused by a mutuation of the feline corona virus discovered in 1960
- 2. coronovirus causes intestinal distress and is highly contagious
- 3. symptoms: fluid accumulation in belly, attack on eye, brain and abdominal organs
- 4. vaccines are available but expensive about 600 for 10 doses
- 5.FIPV attacks white blood cells.
Define Virulence, Pathogen and Parasite
- virulence is the amount of pathogenicity that a pathogen produces
- pathogen is a parasite that infects and causes harm to its host
- parasite is an organssm that relies on the host for growth and causes damage
T/F host-pathogen interaction is consistent static and unchanging
T/F the majority of microorgansims that occur on and in the human body are benign
Why are infection and disease non synonyms?
infections can not cause harm to host while disease does.
T/F in a healthy person microbes are common in the organs and blood
why are mucous membranes usually the site of infection by microorganisms
larger SA and moist protective enviornment
the majority of microorganism that occur on skin are found in associaition with .....
Transient microbes are gram negative or gram positiive. Resident?
gram negative. gram positive
____ contains one of the more complezx and heterogenous microbial habitats in humans
the oral cavity
describe relationship betweenstretococcus mutans and sucrose
S. mutans produces dextran when sucrose present wich sticks to teeth
what is inflammation and fever what are the functions
inflammation localizes pathogen. fever accelerates the antibody respnonse
how many species have been described to date? how many actually exist
1.5 to 1.8 million. 3.6 to 100 mill
nematodes make up what percent of animal life
What is ATBI
All taxon biolocial inventory
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