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defined as a change in behavior due to experience.
interaction between what a person does (responses) and what the environment does (stimulus events).
Stimulus that elicits an automatic, unlearned physiological or emotional response
Participant’s automatic, unlearned physiological response to this stimulus.
Stimulus that is originally neutral but will be later used to elicit the desired response through its pairing with the US
A learned pattern of behavior that typically is similar or identical to the UR, except that it is elicited from the CS rather than the US
when one event depends upon the other
proximity in time between US and CS; nearness of these two events
phase in which the conditioned response strengthens and the probability of the conditioned response being performed increases.
continued presentation of the CS without the US (e.g. buzzer without shock) à occurrence of the CR decreases gradually.
replace the positive association between US and CS with a negative association by substituting a new US which has different UR
CR reappears without any environmental prompting
CR to the observed similarity of a new stimulus to the CS
as the observed difference between a new stimulus and the old CS increases, the probability of the CR decreases
law of effect
Rxn to behavior is positive à Behavior tends to be repeated
Rxn to behavior is negative à Behavior tends to cease
The process by which behavior is either strengthened or weakened by its consequences—the behavior operates on the environment.
applying a rewarding or pleasant stimulus with the intention of increasing the likelihood of recurrence
removal or cessation of an unpleasant stimulus—increases the probability of the behavior that preceded it will be repeated.
a process that decreases the probability of an operant response
application of an unpleasant stimulus
avoidance learning – refrain from a behavior to avoid the negative consequences.
removal of pleasant stimulus
Apply Add Remove Take-away
: Positive Reinforcement & Negative Punishment
: Positive Punishment & Negative Reinforcement
Final Exam Sect 2