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2011-12-14 11:23:21

Final Exam Sect 2
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  1. Learning
    defined as a change in behavior due to experience.
  2. Learning
    interaction between what a person does (responses) and what the environment does (stimulus events).
  3. Unconditioned Stimulus
    Stimulus that elicits an automatic, unlearned physiological or emotional response
  4. Unconditioned Response
    Participant’s automatic, unlearned physiological response to this stimulus.
  5. Conditioned Stimulus
    Stimulus that is originally neutral but will be later used to elicit the desired response through its pairing with the US
  6. Conditioned Response
    A learned pattern of behavior that typically is similar or identical to the UR, except that it is elicited from the CS rather than the US
  7. contingency
    when one event depends upon the other
  8. temporal contiguity
    proximity in time between US and CS; nearness of these two events
  9. antiguity
    phase in which the conditioned response strengthens and the probability of the conditioned response being performed increases.
  10. extinction
    continued presentation of the CS without the US (e.g. buzzer without shock) à occurrence of the CR decreases gradually.
  11. counter conditioning
    replace the positive association between US and CS with a negative association by substituting a new US which has different UR
  12. spontaneous recovery
    CR reappears without any environmental prompting
  13. stimulus generalization
    CR to the observed similarity of a new stimulus to the CS
  14. Stimulus Discrimination
    as the observed difference between a new stimulus and the old CS increases, the probability of the CR decreases
  15. law of effect
    • Rxn to behavior is positive à Behavior tends to be repeated
    • Behavior/response
    • performed:
    • Rxn to behavior is negative à Behavior tends to cease
  16. Operant Conditioning
    The process by which behavior is either strengthened or weakened by its consequences—the behavior operates on the environment.
  17. Positive Reinforcement
    applying a rewarding or pleasant stimulus with the intention of increasing the likelihood of recurrence
  18. Negative Reinforcer
    removal or cessation of an unpleasant stimulus—increases the probability of the behavior that preceded it will be repeated.
  19. Punishment
    a process that decreases the probability of an operant response
  20. Positive Punishment
    • application of an unpleasant stimulus
    • avoidance learning – refrain from a behavior to avoid the negative consequences.
  21. Negative Punishment
    removal of pleasant stimulus
  22. Punishment Table
    • Apply Add Remove Take-away
    • Pleasant Stimulus: Positive Reinforcement & Negative Punishment
    • Unpleasant Stimulus: Positive Punishment & Negative Reinforcement