Roman History

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Roman History
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  1. maiestas
    - any one of several ancient Roman laws dealing with crimes against the people or emperor.
  2. princeps iuventutis -
    "the first amongst the young,”, frequently bestowed on eligible successors to the emperor. It was first given to Augustus' adoptive sons Gaius and Lucius.
  3. Großreich (grossreich) -
    large empire
  4. Kleinreich
    - small empire
  5. Agri Decumates
    - a region of the Roman Empire; upper Germania. it was colonized during the Flavian era, and fortified with defense against invaders (limes)
  6. limes -
    a border defense of Rome; it also marked the boundaries of Rome
  7. coloni -
    became a large part of the population in Roman provinces. basically, serfs bound to the land. usually all the people admitted into the provinces (sometimes Roman freedmen), they became permanent tenants of estates.
  8. constitutio Antonini
    - also called “Edict of Caracalla.” All freed men in Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship, and all women were given the same rights as Roman women.
  9. pagani
    - refers to polytheistic religions
  10. limitanei -
    “the soldiers in fronteir districts;” military disctricts of fronteir provinces. light infantry (similar to spearmen) and used as a police force near the borders. significance: the military reforms and benefits received of the late 3rd century extended the life of the Roman Empire by pushing back invaders
  11. vicarius -
    “deputy” a government official with a specific duty. Diocletian had his diocese headed by a vicarius
  12. praeses
    - “chief” basically a governor, the office couldn’t be held by a member of the Senate, so it was exclusively equites
  13. Domus Augusta:
    what does this represent? - Propaganda and religion began to emphasize the adoptive house of Augustus as the vehicle of succession.
  14. Praetorian prefect/praetorian guard -
    Imperial body guard and the prefect was their leader.
  15. Domus Aurea -
    The golden house fit for a Hellenistic monarch built by Nero after the great fire at Rome. Nero said “Now I can at last live like a human being.”
  16. Quinquennium Neronis
    - Trajan’s observations on the first five years of Nero’s reign. Administration of Seneca and Burrus.
  17. “adoption myth”-
    “All the emperors who succeeded to the throne by birth, except Titus, were bad, all were good who succeeded by adoption; as in the case of the five from Nerva to Marcus. But so soon as the empire fell once more to the heirs by birth, its ruin recommenced.” (Machiavelli)The “good” emperors of the High Empire did not rely on fortune and heredity but adopted the best man for the job as their successor
  18. alimentary institutions -
    Child welfare payments directed to the urban poor and collected through interest payments on state loans to landowners. In essence, this social welfare system allowed for growth in landownership while the proceeds were used in an attempt to level the economic classes.
  19. Second Sophistic -
    a literary-historical term referring to the Greek writers who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 AD and who were catalogued and celebrated byPhilostratus in his Lives of the Sophists
  20. Mystery religion -
    Refers to Christianity in its early days. Not much was known about it except that it was a “religion with a dying god offering salvation.”
  21. Edict of Milan/Edict of Toleration -
    positive toleration that in some ways favors Christians, but this is far from making Christianity the “official religion” of the empire.
  22. Palatine companions (comitatenses Palatini) -
    Highly mobile yet heavily armored field armies. Always commanded by an emperor.
  23. Council of Nicaea -
    Where the different Christian leaders came together to decide on things about the religion.
  24. Diocese
    - Numerous small provinces, each under a praeses.
  25. Edict on Prices -
    Government sets wages and prices, death penalty in most cases of noncompliance
  26. Arianism =
    heresy - The theological teaching attributed to Arius (ca. AD 250–336), a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the persons of the Trinity ('God the Father', 'God the Son' and 'God the Holy Spirit') and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father. Deemed a heretic by the First Council of Nicaea of 325, Arius was later exonerated in 335 at the First Synod of Tyre,[1] and then, after his death, pronounced a heretic again at the First Council of Constantinople of 381.
  27. Chi Rho -
    The Christian symbol that Constantine saw during a battle and he believed it was a sign sent by the Christian god saying “under this sign conquer.”
  28. schisms -
    a division or a split, usually between people belonging to an organization or movement, most frequently applied to a break of communion between two sections of Christianity that were previously a single body
  29. syncretism
    - The combining of different beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought.
  30. First Battle of Cremona -
    Battle where Otho was defeated and he committed suicide afterwards.
  31. Second Battle of Cremona -
    Vitellians who came to power after Otho is wiped out here by those supporting Vespasian for the throne.
  32. Lugdunum -
    Clodius Albinus, who was trying to become emperor after the murder of Pertinax, was defeated here my Septimus.
  33. Adrianople -
    This is where Constantine defeated the other emperor Licinius and united the empire again after 39 years having joint leadership.
  34. Milvian Bridge -
    This is when Constantine attacks Maxentius. He starts losing, but sees a sign in the sky of what hs says was a sign of the Christian god. And to him the sign meant “under this sign conquer.’
  35. Parthia -
    Kingdom east of Rome. Would sometimes come into conflict over each other. There are disputes between Rome and Parthis about Armenia.
  36. Byzantium -
    Was the site of Greek Byzantium where Constantine founded his new capital Constantinople.
  37. Constantinople -
    The new capital of Rome founded by Constantine.
  38. Nicaea -
    Where the council of Nicaea met to discuss the Christian religion.
  39. Constantine II-
    One of Constantine’s sons whom recieved Gaul, Britian and Spain after Constantine’s death. He is defeated by Constans.
  40. Constans I-
    Another of Constantine’s sons. Constans received Africa, Italy and Illyra after Constantine’s death. He defeated Constantine II and ruled the West alone. Constans was an ally of the pope in the growing religious drift. He is killed in a revolt.
  41. Constantius II
    -The third of Constantine’s sons. He received the East after his father’s death. He exhibited Arian sympathies. He is the first “byzantine” emporer.
  42. Julian-
    Constantius asked Julian to come to the East and help him fight the Persians. Julian’s troops declared him Augustus. Constantius dies and Julian became the sole emperor. Although he was raised a Christian he became a pagan. He became hostile to Christianity. Died in the Persian war.
  43. Theodosius-
    Became emperor and ruled from 378-395. He settled Goths on Imperial territory. He completed the progressive ban on paganism. He was a fervent Christian. He permanently divided the Empire at his death.
  44. Constantine
    - Son of Constantius who is proclaimed Augustus to take the place of his father after he dies. After the mess with Maxentius he is demoted to Caesar. At the battle of Milivan Bridge against Maxentius he has a dream “under this sign conquer.” The sign of the Christian god. Agrees with Licinius to partition the empire. Eventually defeats Licinius and takes control of the empire. Makes Constantinople the new capital. Did some work with Christianity. Saw it as a unifying factor for the empire. He is baptized on his deathbed.
  45. Licinius -
    (power point gets a little confusing because it says he does both of these things.) Replaces Severus as Western Augustus. Replaces Galerius as Augustus in the East? Meets Constantine in Milan and they agree to partition the Roman world. He is defeated and banished at the Battle of Adrianople and the Roman empire once again has one emperor after 39 years.
  46. Constantius
    - Chosen as one of the new Caesares and eventually becomes an Augusti in the Tetrarchy system. He dies in a battle at York.
  47. Galerius -
    Chosen as one of the new Caesares in the Tetrarchy and eventually becomes an Augusti. He launches vicious persecution of the Christians. He falls gravely ill; attributed to retribution by the Christian god. Issues an edict of tolerance in the East, then dies.
  48. Maximian -
    Diocletian chooses him to be the other Augusti along with himself. When Diocletian retires he forces Maximian to retire. His son Maxetinus revolts in Italy and proclaims himself Princeps. Maximian comes of retirement to help his son. They eventually quarrel and split apart. Maxetinus is ignored.
  49. Diocletian -
    Ruler after the death of Numerianus. After Numerianus was killed the troops turned to him. He was a Danubian officer. Devised a new way for commanding the army and running the empire: the tetrarchy. He takes all power away from the Senate except in Rome. The tetrarch continues only in name after he is gone.
  50. Aurelian -
    Tough, skillful general - Nicknamed “hand on steel” (Manus ad Ferrum) - Retired from Dacia, stabilized - Danube frontier against Goths - Built wall around Rome - Even central Italy no longer safe! - Defeated Postumus and his successors - Defeated Zenobia, Palmyra’s queen - Autocracy and Monotheism - Solar theology focused on Sol Invictus - “Sunday” a feriae - Murdered
  51. Zenobia -
    widow of Palmyra’s Odenathus, overruns the East, including Egypt and much of Asia Minor
  52. Postumus -
    Gallic Empire - he was emperor in the west during the time that the people of the provinces were choosing their own Augusti to feel better protected.
  53. Valerianus (Valerian) -
    Valerian, Decius’ censor, the only responsible official left - Senate liked - Disciplined the army, but in vain - All borders attacked: Franks, Goths, Persians - Plague ravishes troops and civilians alike - The Persian triumph - The old Parthian Empire was replaced by a native Persian dynasty, the Sassanids - Valerian himself is captured! - Persians overrun Syria and Asia Minor - Expelled only by the quick action of a Roman general and the surprise attack of Odenathus, a desert sheik from Palmyra
  54. Decius
    - Roman Emperor from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until they were both killed in the Battle of Abrittus
  55. Balbinus and Pupienus -
    Senate appoints co-emperorsItaly rallies, Maximinus killed by his own troops when he invades ItalyPraetorians assassinate Pupienus and Balbinus
  56. Gordian I and Gordian II -
    Maximinus’ demands caused a revolt among African landlords, proconsul of Africa and his son declared emperorsNever came to, or ruled from, Rome Governor of Numidia put them down
  57. Maximinus Thrax -
    Derided as a common peasant, actually a strong soldiers’ emperorDoubled soldiers’ pay, extracted ever higher taxes
  58. Ammianus Marcellinus
    (c. A.D. 330–95), Histories. Last great Latin historian who continued the work and tradition of Tacitus. A Greek from Antioch in Syria, he had a military career under the emperor Julian.
  59. Dio Cassius
    (properly Cassius Dio, c. A.D. 164–after 229), Roman History. Greek who became a Roman senator and eventually a consul under the Severan emperors. His Roman History was written in Greek, the surviving portion of which covers, with only small breaks, the period from 69 B.C. to A.D. 46. Some of the material after this period has been preserved in epitomes or abridgements by the Byzantine writers Zonaras and Xiphilinus.
  60. Eusebius of Caesarea
    (c. A.D. 260–339), Ecclesiastical History, Life of Constantine. Christian scholar, writer, and apologist at the time of the emperor Constantine who established the Christian genre of Church history. His Ecclesiastical History is an important, if sometimes questioned, source for the rise of Christianity and imperial persecution of the new church.Edict of Toleration of Milan in A.D. 313, and Constantine’s appearance at the Council of Nicaea (dressed as the sun god in imperial purple and a golden radiate crown!)
  61. Herodian
    (early 3rd cent. A.D.). Greek author of History of the Empire after Marcus, which covered the period from M. Aurelius to Gordian III (A.D. 180–238).
  62. Josephus,
    (b. A.D. 37/38): Jewish Wars. Jewish priest and aristocrat who went over to the Romans during the Jewish revolt of A.D. 66-70.
  63. Lactantius (L. Caelius Firmianus, c. A.D. 240–c. 320),
    On the Deaths of the Persecutors. Teacher of rhetoric under Diocletian, his conversion to Christianity cost him his position. After the great persecution of A.D. 303 he began a lengthy work showing that the fate of those who persecute the saints was always grim. Because of his fine Latin, he was later known as the “Christian Cicero.”
  64. M. Aurelius
    (emperor, A.D. 161–180), Meditations. The stoic emperor composed his memoirs and feelings about duty and life in Greek while campaigning against the Dacians.
  65. Pliny the Younger
    (C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus, c. A.D. 61–c. 112). The younger Pliny had a prominent senatorial career. On intimate terms with the emperor Trojan, Pliny’s correspondence while he was the governor of Bithynia is an important source of information about imperial administration. He also published a laudatory speech at Trojan’s accession called the Panegyricus, but he is best known for his nine books of literary letters or Epistulae. Surviving letters preserve the famous interchange between Trajan and Pliny establishing the emperor’s “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy regarding the Christians.
  66. Plutarch
    (L. Mestrius Plutarchus, c. A.D. 50–120). Greek biographer who wrote the Parallel Lives, comparing famous Greek and Roman figures as well as the Morelia, which included antiquarian works such as “Roman Questions” and “Greek Questions.”
  67. Scriptures Historiae Augustae or “Writers of the Augustan History.”
    The Augustan History is a series of biographies treating the lives of the emperors from Trajan down to Carinus and Numerianus (hence A.D. 117–284). Ostensibly written by six authors living at the time of Diocletian and Constantine, this work is in all probability pseudepigraphic, the author or authors being other than those stated and who actually lived as much as a hundred years later.
  68. Suetonius
    (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, born c. A.D. 70), The Twelve Caesars. Equestrian official under Hadrian, Suetonius was both a scholar and an imperial administrator. Most famous for his biographies of the Twelve Caesars (from Julius Caesar to the emperor Domitian), he also wrote works on rhetoric and literature.
  69. Tacitus, Cornelius
    (c. A.D. 56 until at least 118). Annals, Histories, Agricola. Roman politician who reached the consulship under the emperor Nerva, he is primarily known for his histories of the Julio-Claudians (Annales) and of the Flavia period (Historiae), neither of which survive completely. Also wrote a biography of his father-in-law Agricola, a discussion of imperial oratory, and an ethnographic treatise on the Germans.
  70. Velleius Paterculus (
    c. 20 B.C.–until at least A.D. 30). Roman equestrian with a military career particularly under the emperor Tiberius, Velleius wrote a work beginning with Greek mythology and Roman legends and ending in A.D. 29. A strong partisan of the first two Julio-Claudia emperors, his work is usually deemed to be unobjective.
  71. Zosimus
    (late 5th cent. A.D.), Historia Nova. Wrote a history of Rome that stretched from the time of Augustus to the sack of Rome by Alaric in A.D. 410. One of the last pagan historians, he saw Rome’s late travails as punishment for the rejection of traditional religion.
  72. Julio-Claudian Era -
    era of emperors from Augustus to Nero; largely familial succession; helped the office of emperor to become permanent
  73. Burrus -
    one of Nero’s advisors during the first five years; praetorian prefect; would not help Nero kill his mother, died in 62
  74. Augustus -
    title for many emperors following Octavian; gave some legitimacy to the office. Began as a military dictator with no challengers. “Restored” the republic by giving provinces back to the Senate and people of Rome, resigned all extraordinary powers except consulship. Senate protested, voting him new honors and powers. He was basically the commander of all the armies, had extreme wealth, and held extraordinary honors and patronage. Wrote Res Gestae Divi Augusti about himself (glorified autobiography).
  75. Seneca the Younger -
    one of Nero’s advisors during the first five years; Stoic and author; educated Nero; retired into private life at age 65; forced to commit suicide by Nero
  76. Tiberius -
    Tiberius Caesar Augustus; emperor 14-37; had all the powers of Augustus at the time of Augustus’ death; was reserved, “brooding, and dissimulating”; republican; reluctant emperor; sound administrator; moved to Capri for the last ten years of his reign; isolated by Seianus (who is dealt with by Antonia)
  77. Tigellinus -
    Gaius Ofonius Tigellinus; praetorian prefect under Nero; friend to Seneca; replaced Burrus when Burrus died
  78. Gaius Suetonius Paulinus -
    general; sent by Nero in 58 to fight Britain; conquered Mona; defeated Queen Boudicca to stamp out a rebellion; was replaced soon after with officials meant to make peace with the Britains
  79. Claudius -
    Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus; grandson of Livia and Octavia; had physical handicaps; was elevated by praetorians (the first time the military chose an emperor); not a Iulian; was well-intentioned and well-read; was dominated by the women and freedmen in his life; revived the censorship; transferred the treasury to imperial control; asserted imperial jurisdiction; expanded imperial civic service; performed many public works; alienated the senate
  80. Corbulo
    - Roman general in the East. Sent by Nero into Armenia where he was victorious. Led to conflict with Parthia. Rome and Parthia wanted to avoid conflict, so an agreement was made for both forces to withdraw from Armenia.
  81. Nero -
    Emperor after Claudius. Had an obsession with the arts and was attracted to Hellenistic froms of governemnt. Was not a good ruler and people started turning against him. He eventually commits suicide saying “I die as such an artist.”
  82. Boudicca -
    Queen of the British Iceni tribe. When her husband died left his kingdom jointly to Rome and his daughters. The will was ignored and Rome took over. Boudicca started a revolt and was able to have a good amount of success against the Romans in the beginning. She was eventually defeated by Suetonius.
  83. Vindex-
    Revolt of Vindex AD 68- Nero was the emperor. Vindex was the governor of one of the Gauls. Supported tacitly by Galba and Otho in Spain. Suppressed by L. Verginius Rufus and Rhine Legions. Legions proclaim Rufus emperor but he remains loyal.
  84. Otho
    -second of the four emperors who ruled in 69 AD. angry about Galba’s adoption of Piso. Won over Galba’s praetorian guard. recognized by the senate. otho’s luxuria. type of Etruscan aristocrat. Appealed to those fond of Nero’s style, added Nero to his titlulature and honored him, as he was still honored by the common people.Caecina and valens invade North italy for Vitellius, short lived Othonian victory at Bedriacum, Otho’s defeat and suicide after First Battle of Cremona.
  85. Galba-
    First of the four emperors who ruled in 69 AD. Was the governor of Nearer Spain. From an old aristocratic family. accepted by Senate and Praetorians after Nero. Marches slowly to Italy in 68 AD. reputation for stinginess. Doesn’t pay promised Praetorian donative. Too cheap in tastes and munificence for plebs. adopts Piso, aristocrat popular with Senate. Appealed to wrong constituency, already had senatorial suport. Galba and Piso murdered in the forum.
  86. Marcellus-
    Marcellus was Augustus’ expected heir in his will. He received an accelerated career, serving early as aedile. Still not experien ced or old enough when Augustus became ill in 23 BC, Agrippa was the apparent successor. Died soon after.
  87. Gaius and Lucius Caesar
    - Intended heirs of Augustus. He gave them the title “Foremost of the youth.”
  88. Julia (daughter of Augustus) -
    Julia the Elder (30 October 39 BC – AD 14),was the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman EmpireJulia resulted from Augustus' second marriage with Scribonia, her birth occurring on the same day as Scribonia's divorce from Augustus, who wished to marry Livia Drusilla. She was married to Marcus Claudius Marcellus, then Marcus Agrippa, then Tiberius. She was arrested for treason and adultery during her third marriage, served punishments of exile and house arrest, and died of malnutrition in 14 AD.
  89. Livia -
    (58 BC–AD 29)after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14 also known as Julia Augusta, was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Augustus and his adviser. She was the mother of Nero Claudius Drusus and the Emperor Tiberius. In Augustus’ will she was bestowed the title of Julia Augusta. She fell ill and died in 29 AD. After her death she was deified by Claudius, her grandson, who gave her title of Diva Augusta (42 AD).
  90. M. Agrippa
    - a Roman statesman and general.[2] He was a close friend, son-in-law, lieutenant and defense minister to Octavian, the future Emperor Caesar Augustus. He was responsible for most of Octavian’s military victories, most notably winning the naval Battle of Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. elected in 33 BC as one of the aediles (officials responsible for Rome's buildings and festivals), the streets were repaired and the sewers were cleaned out, while lavish public spectacles were put on.[26] Agrippa signalled his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the Cloaca Maxima, constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens. He also gave a stimulus to the public exhibition of works of art. It was unusual for an ex-consul to hold the lower-ranking position of aedile,[27] but Agrippa's success bore out this break with tradition. In 21 BC he divored Marcella and married Julia the Elder. In 19 BC, Agrippa was employed in putting down a rising of the Cantabrians in Hispania (Cantabrian Wars). He was appointed governor of the eastern provinces a second time in 17 BC, where his just and prudent administration won him the respect and good-will of the provincials, especially from the Jewish population.He died at Campania in 12 March of 12 BC at the age of 51.
  91. Drusus the Elder -
    (14 January 38 BC – 14 September 9 BC), a Roman politician and military commander. He was a fully patrician Claudian on his father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family. He was the stepson of the Emperor Augustus, brother of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father of the Emperor Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He launched the first major Roman campaigns across the Rhine and began the conquest of Germania, becoming the first Roman general to reach the Weser and Elbe rivers. In 12 BC, Drusus led a successful campaign into Germania, subjugating the Sicambri. From 12-9 BC he expanded Roman boundaries far into Germania.
  92. Vitellius -
    was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed Emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Vitellius was the first to add the honorific cognomen Germanicus to his name instead of Caesar upon his accession; the latter name had fallen into disrepute in many quarters because of the actions of Nero. His claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander Vespasian emperor instead. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Cremona in northern Italy. Once he realised his support was wavering, Vitellius prepared to abdicate in favour of Vespasian, but was executed in Rome by Vespasian's soldiers on December 22 of 69.
  93. Germanicus -
    (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) Germanicus Julius Caesar was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Rome, Italia, and received the agnomen Germanicus in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. His parents were the general Nero Claudius Drusus (son of Empress Livia Drusilla, third wife of Emperor Augustus) and Antonia Minor (the younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus). Livilla was his sister and the future Emperor Claudius was his younger brother. His own campaigns in Germania made him famous after avenging the defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest and retrieving the legion's eagles lost during the battle. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, and father of the Emperor Caligula. Germanicus died suddenly in Antioch. His death aroused much speculation, with several sources blaming Piso, under orders from Emperor Tiberius.
  94. Vespasian -
    Roman Emperor from 69 AD to 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians, who rose into the senatorial rank under the Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51 AD, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43,[4] and subjugating Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66 AD.[5]His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He was the last emperor in the Year of the Four Emperors.
  95. Drusus the Younger
    - the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Despite his violent temper, Drusus showed promise with both military and politics. In 13 AD, he was made a permanent member of the Senate committee Augustus had founded to draw up the Senate's daily business. However, because Drusus was only related to the Claudian side of the family, rather than both the Julians and Claudians, Augustus forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus, who was married to Augustus's granddaughter, as his son and heir, removing Drusus from the succession. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became a consul. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was consul again, significantly with his father Tiberius as his colleague, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor.By 23 it looked as if Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, would succeed Tiberius as emperor. For reasons of self-survival, but also because he may have had designs on the supreme power, Sejanus needed to remove Drusus. Ancient sources (Tacitus, Suetonius, Cassius Dio) concur that with Livilla as his accomplice he poisoned her husband.
  96. Vipsania Agrippina -
    Married to Tiberius, but Augustus made Tiberius divorce her and marry Julia. Mother of Drusus Iulius Caesar.
  97. Nymphidius Sabinus
    - Praetorian prefect, during the time of Nero, who bribes the guard and brings them over to the side of Galba. He tries to gain power for himself and ends up being killed by his own men.
  98. Livilla (affair with Seianus) -
    Was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus. Allegedly, she helped her lover Sejanus in poisoning her husband and died shortly after Sejanus fell from power in 31 AD.
  99. Valens and Caecina -
    Commanded legions during the time of Galba and revolted against him.
  100. Antonia -
    Daughter of Octavian. Tiberius adopted his nephew, Germanicus, who had Iulian blood through his mother Antonia
  101. Tiberius -
    Son of Livia. Adopted by Augustus to be the next ruler. Became consul in 13 B.C. Was married to Vipsania, but forced by Augustus to divorce her and marry Julia. At the time of Augustus’s death Tiberius already held all the powers of emperor.
  102. Gemellus
    - Joint heir with Gaius Iulius Caesar. Tiberius’ natural grandson through Druscus.
  103. Valeria Messalina
    - Third wife of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus. Had an “affair,” which was really an attempted political coup.
  104. Flavians-
    The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho died in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was quickly challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who declared their commander Vespasian Emperor in his place. The Flavians initiated economic and cultural reforms. Under Vespasian, new taxes were devised to restore the Empire's finances, while Domitian revalued the Roman coinage by increasing its silver content. A massive building programme was enacted to celebrate the ascent of the Flavian dynasty, leaving multiple enduring landmarks in the city of Rome, the most spectacular of which was the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum.
  105. Julia Agrippina-
    Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (Minor Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA, 7 November 15 or 6 November 16[2] – 19/23 March 59) was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter of the Emperor Tiberius, sister of the Emperor Caligula, niece and fourth wife of the Emperor Claudius, and mother of the Emperor Nero.Agrippina the Younger has been described by both the ancient and modern sources as ‘ruthless, ambitious, violent and domineering’. She was a beautiful and reputable woman and according to Pliny the Elder, she had a double canine in her upper right jaw, a sign of good fortune. Many ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning Emperor Claudius, though accounts vary.
  106. Domitian
    -Domitian (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus;[1] 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of his father Vespasian, who became emperor in 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus effectually reigned as co-emperor with his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died in 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness in 81. The following day Domitian was declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard, commencing a reign which lasted fifteen years - longer than any man who had ruled since Tiberius
  107. Britannicus-
    Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 February AD 41 — 11 February AD 55) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina. He became the heir-designate of the empire at his birth, less than a month into his father's reign. He was still a young boy at the time of his mother's downfall and Claudius' marriage to Agrippina the Younger. This allowed Agrippina's older son Nero to eclipse him in the public's mind. He lived only months into his step brother Nero's reign, murdered just before his 14th birthday.
  108. Octavia-
    was an Empress of Rome. She was a great-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal first cousin of the Emperor Caligula, daughter of the Emperor Claudius, and stepsister and first wife of the Emperor Nero. Asteroid 598 Octavia is named after her. Nero divorced Octavia and this was one part of Nero’s decline
  109. Mucianus
    -At the time of the outbreak of the Jewish revolt in 66 AD, Mucianus was serving as governor of Syria, a post he still held during the Year of Four Emperors (69). He failed to put down the Jewish revolt and Vespasian was sent to replace him. After the death of Galba (69), Mucianus and Vespasian (who was at the time in Iudaea) both swore allegiance to Otho, but when the civil war broke out Mucianus persuaded Vespasian to take up arms against Vitellius, who had seized the imperial throne. It was agreed that Vespasian should stay behind to settle affairs in the East, while Mucianus made his way through Asia Minor and Thrace to attack Vitellius. He reached Rome the day after the death of Vitellius, and found Domitian, Vespasian's son, at the head of affairs, but until the arrival of Vespasian the real master of Rome was Mucianus who never wavered in his allegiance to Vespasian, whose favour he retained in spite of his arrogance. He is mentioned as suffect consul in 70 and 72.
  110. Piso and Plancina-
    Munatia Plancina (died 33 AD) was a Roman noblewoman who lived in the early times of the Empire founded by Augustus. She was the wife of the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso. The couple was accused to have poisoned Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of the Emperor Tiberius. At first Munatia Plancina was acquitted but when the trial was renewed she committed suicide.
  111. Antonius Primus-
    -Primus was born at Tolosa (Toulouse) in Gaul. During the reign of Nero, he was resident in Rome and a member of the Senate, from which he was expelled for conspiring to forge a will with Valerius Fabianus, and was banished from the city. He was subsequently reinstated by Galba, and placed in command of the Legio VII Galbiana in Pannonia.
  112. Seianus -
    Ambitious praetorian prefect. Concentrates praetorian guard in Rome and becomes sole commander. He has imperial ambitions and marries sister to Claudius. Tries to marry Livilla. Aspires to consulship with Tiberius, eventual tribunicia potestas.
  113. Berenice
    - Had an affair with emperor Titus.
  114. Macro
    - Proposed Gaius Julius Caesar’s elevation to the senate. Legend of “smothering Tiberius.”
  115. Domitia Longina -
    Wife of emperor Domitian. Planned a coup to overthrow him with Petronius Secundus (praetorian prefect), and Stephanus (chamberlain.)
  116. Gaetulicus
    - A Roman general who led a revolt on the Rhine when Gaius’s leadership was becoming erratic possibly due to an illness.
  117. Petronius Secundus -
    Praetorian Prefect under Domitian, but was involved in the coup to get rid of him. After Domitian’s death support for him was still strong in the military and Praetorian was killed by the rest of the guard because of it.
  118. Pallas Stephanus
    - Chamberlin who helped in the coup against Domitian.
  119. Callistus -
    Roman general more commonly known as Balista.
  120. Nerva
    - first emperor freely chosen by the Senate. Began career under Nero. Praetorian revolt came under his rule. Adopted Trajan for military support, but died before Trajan even got to Rome.
  121. Trajan -
    successful general, popular with the military. formalized the imperial council. reputation for justice and good government. conquests: parthian wars, decian wars, annexation of arabia
  122. Hadrian -
    empire was overextended (negotiated return of some land to Parthia), very interested in Greek culture, spent most of his time outside Rome
  123. Antoninus Pius -
    positive with the senate, empire at peace, emperor diligent and attentive, developed public works and social welfare, but revolts developing and trouble on northern borders
  124. Marcus Aurelius -
    dual emperor with Verus, but he was senior emperor. dealt with Germanic threat in the west. quelled revolt of Cassius. Stoic emperor. Rome became increasingly overstretched both financially and militarily.
  125. Commodus
    - first emperor to succeed the throne in a long time. “young, brash ruler” array of conspiracies against him initiated his reign of terror. eventually murdered. didn’t accomplish much.
  126. Bar Kokhba -
    acclaimed by some (not Jewish christians) as messiah, historic figure who could restore Isreal. led revolt against Roman Empire, but failed. Jews were barred from Jerusalem as a result.
  127. Cassius -
    Governor of Syria and delegated by Versus to handle most of the fighting in the area. He started a revolt, but was killed by his own troops.
  128. Cleander
    - Freedman and former cubicularius (chamberlain) becomes praetorian prefect. Noted for financial corruption. Sacrificed to plebs during grain shortage (A.D. 190)
  129. Faustina the elder
    - Wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. Known for her charity work.
  130. Faustina the younger
    - Daughter of Antoninus and wife of M. Aurelius. She received the title Augusta before Marcus was Augustus.
  131. Laetus -
    Praetorian prefect who plans against Commodus with Marcia (mistress), and Eclectus (chamberlain) to have Commodus strangled in bath.
  132. Lucius Verus -
    Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his death. First time Rome was ruled by two emperors.
  133. Perennis -
    Praetorian prefect, initiated Commodus’ reign of terror. Appointed equestrians over legions, son over Illyrian army. Eventually executed for conspiracy himself (A.D. 185)
  134. Vibia Sabina -
    Wife of Hadrian. They have no kids, so Hadrian makes other succession plans.
  135. Pertinax -
    Helvidiud Pertinax. Senatorial choice for ruler. Fails to pay praetorians enough, and tries to discipline them. Laetus leads Pradtorians against him and he is killed. Septimus comes to Rome and avenges Pertinax and adds Pertinax to his name.
  136. Didus Iulianus -
    Was emperor for three months after buying the office from the Praetorian guard, who had assinated his predecessor Pertinax. He was ousted and killed by Septimus when he came to Rome.
  137. Clodius Albinus -
    Was a Roman usurper proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania after the murder of Pertinax. He was eventually defeated and killed by Severus Septimus.
  138. Pescennius Niger -
    Plebs call on Pescennius, governor of Syria, to take power after Pertinax is killed. His legions proclaim him emperor. He is defeated by Severus Septimus.
  139. Macrinus -
    Was a usurper. Praetorian prefect, assassinated Caracalla on the Parthian campaign. First equestrian emperor. Loses support of legions by humiliating Parthian settlement.
  140. Septimius Severus
    - Emperor following the murder of Pertinax. Has to fight Albinus and Niger for the emperorship. Adopted himself and his family postfumously into the family of M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar. Wanted to make his rule more legitimate.
  141. Julia Domna -
    Second wife of Septimus Severus. She bears two sons, Caracalla and Geta.
  142. Caracalla -
    Son of Septimius Severus. Originally L. Sepitmius Bassianus, becomes M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar. Before his father dies he tells Caracalla and his brother to work together. They don’t and Caracalla murdered Geta supposedly in their mother’s arms. Is assassinated by Macrinus on the Parthian campaign.
  143. Geta -
    Second son of Septimus Severus. Murdered by his older brother.
  144. Julia Maesa -
    Sister of Iulia Domna. Engineers the overthrow of Macrinus (the man who killed her sister’s son)
  145. Elagabalus -
    Emperor 218-222 A.D. His greatest interest was his role as priest of the Syrian sun god. New temple and worhsip established in Rome during his time. Eastern rites, including possible unusual sexual practices, alienated the Senate and army. He was eventually killed because of he was so unpopular.
  146. Julia Soaemia -
    Mother of Elagabalus. Died with him.
  147. Severus Alexander
    - Was adopted and made heir by Elagabalus. Was the next emperor after him. The real power was Alexander’s mother, Iulia Mamaea. Studiously portrayed himself as a traditional Roman in contrast to Elagabalus.
  148. Julia Mamaea
    - Mother of Severus Alexander. She is the one who really had the power.

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