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2011-12-14 16:52:12
Final Exam

chem test definition and formulas
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  1. decimal places
    for addition or subtraction, the limiting term in finding the number of digits is the smallest number of
  2. density
    • the amount of mass in a given volume
    • a physical property
  3. measurement
    a quantative observation that consist of a number units and uncertainty (sig figs), depending upon the measuring device.
  4. Pure substance
    always has a constant composition, and can be either elements or compounds
  5. calorie
    is the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 celsius degree.
  6. Mass Number
    the sum of protons and neutrons
  7. isotopes
    have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
  8. salt and water
    acid reacts with base to form
  9. balancing a chemical equation
    • subscripts are determined first to balance ion charges
    • then coefficients are added to balance atoms on each side of the equations
  10. Spectator ions
    do not participate in the chemical reaction and are not included in the net ionic equations
  11. acid
    produces H+ in an aqueous solution
  12. redox reactions
    electrons are transferred
  13. reactants
    the starting chemicals in a chemical equation are called
  14. atomic weight
    gives the smallest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound
  15. Limiting reactant
    is used up completely when reactants are mixed to form products
  16. Valence Electrons
    the outermost electrons and determine the properties of an atom
  17. ionization energy
    the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
  18. orbital
    a volume of space around the nucleus where an electron is most likely to be found
  19. molarity
    moles of solute per liter of solution
  20. electronegativity
    the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons toward itself
  21. double covalent bond
    results when two electron pairs are shared
  22. 22.4 L
    the volume of 1 mole of gas at STP
  23. Intermolecular Forces
    • the forces between molecules
    • WEAKER than the bond within the molecules
  24. Buffer
    a weak acid & salt, its conjugate base
  25. chemical equilibrium
    • the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
    • as a result the reactants and the products remain the same
  26. mixture
    • thrown together elements or compounds
    • they do not chemically bond
    • ex: homo-chicken broth, carbonated drink motor oil hetero-dirt, italian dressing
  27. compund
    • different elements that are chemically combined or bonded
    • always has the same chemical composition
    • ex: H2O OH- Vitamin D
  28. element
    • cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical change
    • ex: nitrogen gas
  29. Physical change
    • something we can observe without the chemical formula changing
    • ex: sugar dissolves in hot tea, salad dressing seperates, sweat evaporating
  30. chemical change
    • something we can observe that changes the chemical formula
    • ex: rust, burning, antacid neutralizes heartburn
  31. Hydrogen Bond
    Hydrogen plus N O F
  32. ionic bond
    metal and nonmetal bond
  33. dipole dipole
    polar molecules H and something S- or S+
  34. London Forces
    • nonpolar molecules
    • diatomic molecules
    • F2 Br2 H2 N2 O2
  35. Upper Right
    Lower Left
    • larger ionization energy
    • smaller ionization energy
  36. Lower Left
    Upper Right
    • Larger atomic size
    • Smaller atomic size
  37. Lower Left
    most active metals
  38. Upper right
    most active nonmetals