Chapter 13 Psychology

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  1. Personality
    The characteristic thoughts, behaviors, and emotional responses that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances
  2. Organization of Personality
    personality isn't just a list of traits, but a coherent whole
  3. Personality Trait
    a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances
  4. Psychodynamic Theory
    Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior
  5. Psychosexual Stage
    According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges
  6. Oral Stage (0-2)
    pleasure and exploration is sought through the mouth
  7. Anal Phase (2-3)
    Learning to focus on self-control of the body
  8. Phallic Stage (3-5)
    learn pleasure (not sexual pleasure) in exploration of genitals
  9. Oedipus Complex
    children want their opposite sex parent, so they seek to be like their same sex parent to get attention from their opposite sex parent
  10. Latency Stage (5-adolescence)
    children's sexuality is suppressed
  11. Genital Stage
    adults and adolescents learn that it's equally pleasureable to receive and give pleasure sexually
  12. Oral Personalities
    when a child becomes fixated at the oral stage, they continue to seek pleasure through the mouth (such as smoking) and are excessively needy
  13. anal-Retentive Personalities
    children who were fixated in the oral stage, are stubborn and highly regulating
  14. id
    I want; the component of personality that is completel submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle
  15. superego
    I should; the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct
  16. ego
    I can; the component that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego
  17. Defense Mechanisms
    unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress
  18. Humanistic Approaches
    approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems, they propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential
  19. Personality Types
    discrete categories based on global personality characteristics
  20. Trait Approach
    an approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions
  21. Self-Efficacy
    the extent to which people believe they can achieve specific outcomes
  22. Idiographic Approaches
    person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into i=unique persons
  23. nomothetic approaches
    approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traits
  24. projective measures
    personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
  25. objective measures
    relatively direct assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionnaires or observer ratings
  26. situationism
    the theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits
  27. interactionists
    theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by underlying dispositions and situations
  28. temperaments
    biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways
  29. behavioral approach system
    brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or reward
  30. behavioral inhibition system
    the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain
  31. self-serving bias
    the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors
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Chapter 13 Psychology
2011-12-14 21:52:58
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