FINAL STUDY GUIDE.txt

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jrez2004
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FINAL STUDY GUIDE.txt
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Olympic final study guide
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  1. Identify the names of the presidents of the IOC in order of service
    • Demetrios Vikelas (Greece)
    • Baron Pierre de Coubertin (France)
    • Henri de Baillet-Latour (Begium)
    • Sigrid Edstrum (Sweden)
    • Avery Brundage (USA)
    • Michael Morris (Ireland)
    • Juan Antonio Samaranch (Spain)
    • Jacques Rogge (Belgium)
  2. Why didn't president Hebert hoover preside over the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic games?
    because politically it was inadviseable for the president to celebrate the games while so many were suffering during the depression.
  3. Identify the political influences that led to the formation of:The USSR
    Following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Joseph Stalin took power, leading the USSR through a large-scale industrialization program. Stalin established a planned economy and suppressed political opposition to him and the Communist party
  4. Identify the political influences that led to the formation of:Israel
    Following the 1947 United Nations decision to partition Palestine, on 14 May 1948 David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared Israel a state independent from the British Mandate for Palestine.
  5. Identify the political influences that led to the formation of:The Eastern Bloc countries
    Members of the Eastern Bloc besides the Soviet Union are sometimes referred to as "satellite states" of the Soviet Union. Eastern Bloc politics followed the Red Army's occupation of much of eastern Europe at the end of World War II and the Soviet Union's installation of Soviet-controlled communist governments
  6. Identify the political influences that led to the formation of:East Germany
    East Germany had its origins in the aftermath of World War II. During the Yalta Conference of 1945, the Allied Powers agreed that Germany would be divided into four zones of occupation, the borders of which were estimated by tracking the progress of all four armies and determining where they would meet.The new government was led by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
  7. Identify the political influences that led to the formation of:People's Republic of China
    Following the Chinese Civil War and the victory of Mao Zedong's Communist forces over the Kuomintang forces of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who fled to Taiwan, Mao declared the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949.
  8. Define apartheid
    1.(in South Africa) A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race.
  9. where were the 1932 games held, and how long did they last?
    they were held in los angeles and they lasted be july 30th and august 14th
  10. how many athletes competed in the 1932 la games?
    1332 (126 women) only half showed up because of economical costs and world wide effects of depression
  11. what peroid was the united states going through at the time of the 1932 la games?
    the great depression and it threatened the summer games.
  12. why was having the 1932 games in LA kind of a problem?
    images of the scary western frontier still loomed even though the indian wars had been over for 50 years.
  13. in what games did the first olympic village take place?
    1932 LA games
  14. did the great depression affect the attendance of the 1932 games?
    100,000 attended the opening day and the games were considered a diversion from "today's problem"
  15. which games were the first to last 16 days only?
    the 1932 LA games
  16. what are the only two games to make a profit?
    the 1932 and 1984 games
  17. which games introduced the automatic timing and the timing to the 1ooth of a sec?
    1932 LA games
  18. to which city were the 1932 winter olympics awarded?
    lake placid and they were precided over by the future president and then new york governor franklin d roosevelt
  19. why were the 1932 lake placis games nearly cancelled?
    the town was having an unseansonbly warm winter
  20. were did the first female flag-bearer take place?
    1932 lake placid she was from great britain
  21. who's the only person to ever win gold medals in the winter and summer games?
    eddie eagan- he won boxing gold medals and bobsleigh gold medals
  22. even though the 1932 games were successful what were some world crisis's occuring during that time?
    great depression was affecting world markets, Hitler's NAZI party was gaining popularity, mussolini held dictatorial power in italy, japan was trying to expand into the pacific, and stalin was trying to implement a communist policy of collectivization of agriculture.
  23. which city were the 1936 games awarded to and who were they presided over by?
    Berlin and spain was the only other candidate city. and they presided over by adolf hitler
  24. what war efforts did the olympic village for the 1936 games serve for after the olympics were over?
    to house nazi soldiers
  25. who was the first person to institute and torch relay for the games?
    Dr. carl diem, secretary of the booc
  26. how did jesse owens disprove hilters claim of a superior aryan race?
    by winning for gold medals
  27. how did the first ever basketball event turnout?
    a disaster. they were played outdoors, on the dirt, during the rain. the final score 19 - 8.
  28. how was drug dopping a part of the 1936 games?
    the drug use expanded and the german government supplied their athletes with steriods and testosterone in order to ensure good performances.
  29. which korean athlete won the gold medal but was forced to run run for japan?
    sohn kee-chong and his name was son kitei aaccording to the japanese.
  30. how did korea become a part of japan?
    it became a protectorate of japan in 1945 after the russo-japanese war.
  31. until when did japan control korea?
    unitl ww2 ended in 1945
  32. why didnt the nazi's originally like the idea to host the olympic games?
    because they said it was a festival dominated by jews
  33. for what reasons did the german conservative right wing group oppose the 1936 games?
    for fiscal reasons
  34. why did the german socialist left wing groups oppose the 1936 games?
    for ideological reasons
  35. how was hitler able to ultimatly have complete and dictorial power?
    by enabling the act of march. policies were enacted even though they violated german consitution.
  36. what did hitler orginally think of when hosting the olympic games?
    he initially opposed them but was finally persuaded that the games might be politically useful.
  37. what were the first olympic games to be used as a propaganda tool.
    the 1936 berlin olympics in germany
  38. what started happening to the jews from march to june of 1933 in germany?
    there was a purging of jews from business, politics, and sport organizations.
  39. why did germany withdraw from the league of nations?
    the nazi army was concerned over limitiations imposed by the treaty of versaillies.
  40. why did the nazi party want dr. theodor lewald replaced as president of the booc?
    because lewald's grandmother was a jew and therefore unfit to represent the "new order"
  41. which powerful country began to urge the ioc to withdraw the games from germany for their anti-semtic ways?
    the united states
  42. what two sporting events did socialists groups from many countries create based on ideological/ political beliefs?
    the peoples olympiad of 1936 in germany and the spartakiad in moscow
  43. how did the spanish civil war begin?
    spain was in choas. the popular front party came to power in 1936. they exiled the leader of the national party, franco. franco planned a revolt. on july 17th franco began his coup d'etat. on july 18th fighting broke out in barcelona at the site of the peoples olympics. this began the spanish civil war.
  44. what did the national party accuse the popular front party of doing in regards to the peoples olympics?
    they accsused them of staging the peoples olympics as ruse to bring fighters into spain.
  45. who did franco's naitonal party enlist to help in the spanish war?
    germany(hitler), and italy(mussolini)
  46. what did the International skiing federation declare about professional, how did the ioc rule, and what countries opposed the ruling?
    isf stated that ski instuctors were not proffesionals, the ioc overruled and said they were, so austria and swiss teams boycotted in response to the ioc.
  47. at which games was the first symbolic fire lit at?
    the 1936 winter games in garmish-partenkirchen
  48. which war has been the most extensive and costly in the history of the war?
    wwII
  49. what were the two sides that were battling in ww2?
    the alliances(allies) and the axis
  50. what six countries composed the allies?
    british, u.s., france, poland, soviet union, china
  51. what three countries composed the axis powers?
    germany, italy, japan
  52. what were the four major causes of ww2?
    • a worldwide great depression
    • disagreements over ww1 reparations
    • the spread of totalitarian regimes
    • the japanese invasion of manchuria china
  53. what is the commanly accepted date that ww2 began on?
    september 1 1939, when germany invaded poland
  54. what two major factions were engaged in civil war in china
    the ktm nationalist party founded by sun yat-sen and the communist party led by mao zedong
  55. why did japan invade china in 1931?
    • to expand it's empire into china and mainland
    • to access the rich natural resources for japans growing economy.
  56. why did japan withdraw from the league of nations?
    because of worldwide criticism of japans invasion of china
  57. what war did the japanese invasion of china lead to?
    the sino-japanese war which would unite the a kmt and cpc to force japan out.
  58. when did japan attack pearl harbor?
    on 12/7/41 hawaii was not a state until 1959
  59. when did the u.s. declare war on japan?
    on 12/8/41
  60. when did germany declare war on the u.s.?
    12/11/41 entering the u.s. into the european part of ww2
  61. when did ww2 end in europe?
    in 5/8/45 on V-E day
  62. when did the pacific part of ww2 end?
    on V-J day on 9/2/45
  63. what percentage of the world's population did ww2 claim?
    2%
  64. what percentage of european jews died in ww2?
    2 out of 3. that's 66%
  65. who were the groups targeted during the holocaust?
    gypsies, homosexuals, jehovah's witnesses, disabled, and the jews
  66. how many people, jews, and children were killed as part of the holocaust?
    11 million killed, 6 million jews, 1.1 million children
  67. how were japan and europe westernized and industrialized?
    because they had to be rebuilt following the destruation they suffered in ww2
  68. what was the marchall plan?
    the european recovery program
  69. which country was originally chosen to host the 1940 games?
    tokyo
  70. what asian country was the first to be an olympic power, have NOC, participate, and win medals at the olympic games.
    japan
  71. why did japan remove its commitment to host the games in 1938?
    because of the financial problem resulting from their invasion and war with china
  72. who got japans 1940 games?
    helsinki, finland
  73. which two games were cancelled due to ww2?
    the 1940(xii) and 1944(xiii) games
  74. who was the defacto leader that filled in as leader following henri baillet-latour's death?
    j, sigfrid edstrom from sweden. he became the 4th president of the ioc
  75. What are the notes about j. sigfrid edstrom?
    • Born 1870
    • World class sprinter in the 1890's
    • Founder (1913) & first president of the IAAF (until 1946)
    • Directed 1912 Olympic games
    • Member IOC 1920
    • Executive board IOC 1921
    • V.P. of IOC 1931
  76. how did edstrom reunite the ioc?
    he met with avery brundage and lord aberdare and created the executive board. then located surviving ioc members. then decided to hold the 1948 games in london.
  77. what 3 important deaths occured in april of 1945?
    • franklin d. roosevelt died
    • mussolini was assassinated
    • and hilter committed suicide
  78. what were the keys issues discussed at the yalta conference?
    the unconditional surrender of germany, and the division of germany into four occupied zones
  79. what was the u.s. forced to agree to as conditions for the soviets declaring war against japan?
    u.s. had to recognize the mongolian independence from china, and the soviet interests in manchuria.
  80. what 3 countries controlled west germany?
    u.s., france, and britain
  81. when did the berlin wall that seperated west and east germany fall?
    on Nov. 9th 1989
  82. what did the u.s. find out about the ussr on sep 23 1949 and what did that create?
    that the ussr had exploded its first nuclear weapon. the cold war had now begun
  83. what were the ideological difference between the US and the ussr
    capitalism vs communism
  84. what political group did mao zendong create?
    the peoples republic of china (PRC)
  85. where did 2 million nationlist chinese people of the republic of china party retreate to ?
    taiwan
  86. in December 1949 where did chiang kai-shek proclaim was the temporary capital of the republic of china?
    taipei, taiwan
  87. when and how was isreal created?
    in may 14th 1948
  88. what happened after the league of nations approved to control and grant jews some of their land?
    mass number of jews began migrating to their homeland and this created territorial conflicts between jews and arabs.
  89. who were the 1948 games presided over by?
    King George VI
  90. how were the 1948 games affected following ww2?
    • much of europes infastructure was in shambles, food rationings were in place and there were questions if there was enough for athletes.
    • no special facilities were built for the games. considered the spartan (frugal,barebones) games
  91. why didnt the ussr participate in the 1948 games?
    because they felt their athletes were ready to be top performers so they couldnt show the world the legitimazation of the communist way of life.
  92. what happen to political refugees of eatern bloc countries who werent represent by any ioc?
    the ioc refused to allow their participation
  93. what did arab countries threaten to do if israel was allowed to participate at the 1984 london games?
    they threatened to boycott
  94. what were the first games to be shown in a home television and introduce the starting blocks for sprints?
    the 1948 london games
  95. who was the youngest gold medalist ever in track and field?
    17 year-old bob mathias from tulare, ca
  96. where were the 1948 winter games held and what were the other candidate cities?
    held in st. moritz, switzerland and lake placid(us) was the other candiate city
  97. who won many skating medals and honors?
    dick button
  98. what were some important points about the 1952 helsinki games?
    • the ussr and israel sent teams for the first time
    • unofficial team scoring began (communist vs capitalists)
  99. what did emil zatopek do at the 1952 games that was special?
    on;ly athlete in olympic history to win the 5000, 10,000 and marathon event.
  100. when was avery brundage born, go to school, and how did he gain his wealth?
    he was born in 1887, graduated from the university of illinois and with his degree in engineering founded a construction company.
  101. what were Brundages olympic involvements prior to becoming the president?
    • Represented the US in the 1912 Stockholm Games
    • Champion track & field athlete
    • Joined the IOC in 1936
    • Vice President of the IOC in 1945
    • Elected President of the IOC in 1952, retiring in 1972
  102. How was avery brundage attempting to restructure the olympics?
    • he was attempting to preserve the idealistic principles of amateurism,
    • competition between individuals (not countries), and
    • competition for the benefit of the athletes (not for the benefit of the spectators)
  103. what 8 policy changes was avery brudage trying to implement in the olympics?
    • reduce the number of events in attempt to control costs
    • eliminate team sports
    • eliminate women's events
    • limit number of entries to each event
    • favored events that could be objectively measured only
    • eliminate "artificial sports"; those subjectively measured
    • eliminate national identification of all athletes
    • eliminate national anthems at awards ceremonies
  104. to what city were the 1952
    winter games awarded to what were the other candidate cities?
  105. the 1952 winter games were awarded to oslo, norway. cortina(italy) and lake placid(US) were the other candidate cities.
  106. who presided over the 1952 oslo games?
  107. princess ragnhild
  108. where was the birth place of modern skiing?
  109. norway
  110. what two first did the 1952 oslo games introduce?
    the giant slalom and cross-country skiing events for women
  111. why didn't the ussr participate in the olympics between ww1 and 1952?because of the upheaval caused by the communist revolution.
  112. according to the ussr what the olympics a part of?
  113. the capitalistic system
  114. what were the 3 conditions that the ussr was asking for in order to join the iaaf and iwf?
  115. 1.Russian as the official language of both federations
  116. 2.Install a Soviet representative on both executive boards3.Remove Spain
    *only second condition agreed to
  117. what was the ussr's definition of soviet amateur?
  118. All communist party members were workers of the state
    . Sport was work. Therefore athletes were workers of the state
  119. how did the ioc react to the soviets definition of amateur athlete?
    the ioc accepted the definition and this opened the door for the ussr to setup special sports/training schools and camps to represent the ussr and communism in the best possible light.
  120. as part of the ussr's agreement to join the olympics, who did the ioc allow to the representative for the ussr?
    konstantin andrianov
  121. who was the first non-enlgish, non-french french member to join the ioc?
    konstantin andrianov
  122. how did avery brundage see the ussr's definiton of amateur?
    he disapproved but saw no difference than the u.s. support of of it's college athletes: paying tuition, room&board, and books
  123. what prevented chinese participation at the 1952 helsinki games?
    the dispute over the ligitimte china between the prc and roc
  124. in relation to the two-china policy what did the ioc do at the meeting in athens in 1954?
    the recognized the prc and roc
  125. where were the 1956 games awarded to?
    • the 1956 games were awarded to melbourne(australia)
    • what was interesting about the location of australia in relation to the dates that the olympics took place?
    • because austalia is in low hemesphere the games were held from nov 22-dec 8.
    • who presided over the 1956 games in australia?
    • the duke of edinburg
  126. what was established in the 1956 melbourne game at the closing ceremonies?
    that all athletes parade together as a symbol of unity
  127. which games would see the emergence of boycotting as an attempt to influence the ioc and world opinion?
    the 1956 melbourne games
  128. who wanted to purge the communist leadership of stalinstic influences?
    stalin predicesor, nikita khrushchev
  129. who withdrew from the 1956 melborne games because the ussr invaded hungary?
    spain, netherlands, and switzerland
  130. who took control of the suez canal and blocked israel passage in 1956?
    the egyptian government
  131. what happened after egypt blocked israel from passing through the suez canal?
    british and french forces sent troops to allow israel passage, the the ussr sent troops to stop them
  132. what did egypt demand the ioc do for the 1956 games?
    that they exclude all countries at war with egypt
  133. who withdrew from the 1956 games as a protest over the suez canal seizure?
    egypt, lebanon, and iraq
  134. why did the peoples republic of china boycott the 1956 games?
    because the ioc recognized the nationalist government of china(republic of china)
  135. which of the two chinese countries would the ioc recognize as the sole government until the 1970s.
    the peoples republic of china (poc)
  136. who did the two germanies compete at the 1956 melbourne games?
    under one flag
  137. at what games did the ussr make their first winter appearance?
    the 1956 cortina winter games
  138. what were the first winter games to be televised?
    the 1956 winter cortina games
  139. during which decade were the olympic games used as instrument of political and social change throughout the world?
    the 60's
  140. who presided over the 1960 rome games?
    president giovanni gronchi
  141. which racial group broke through at the 1960 rome games?
    black athletes, icluding muhammad ali
  142. how was south africa affected at the 1960 rome games?
    because of aparteid it was the last time they competed until 1992 when aparteid was was abolished
  143. what event at the 1960 rome games led to drug testing in the olympics?
    the collapse of knud jensen during a cycling race and his eventual death because he was overdosed with amphetamine. first death at olympics since 1912
  144. how much did cbs pay for the rights to televise the summer games?
    $600,000 and walter cronkite did the broadcasting.
  145. who presided over the 1960 winter games in squaw valley?
    vice-president richard nixon
  146. what was alexander cushings role in the 1960s winter games in squaw valley?
    he made the bid to host the games, was the only resident of the town, and had to build everthing since there was nothing there.
  147. who was chosen as head of pageantry for the 1906 squaw valley winter games?
    walt disney
  148. what are the only games to not hold a bobsled event?
    the 1960 squaw valley winter games
  149. how was instant reply introduced to the olympics?
    1960 squaw valley, Olympic officials were unclear if an athlete missed a gate during the slalom event and asked CBS-TV if they could watch the videotape
  150. at which games were the mens biathlon, womens speed skating, ibm computer used to calculate results, and metal ski's introduced?
    the 1960 squaw valley games
  151. who presided over the 1964 tokyo games?
    emperor hirohito
  152. why was the success of 1964 games important to japan?
    because in demostrated the reconstruction of japan following ww2
  153. what was important about yoshinori sakai chosen as the torchbearer in 1964? because he was in hiroshima on the day the atomic bomb was dropped
  154. what are 4 key points about the 1964 games in japan?
    • first games were held in asian country
    • Last time track events would be run on a cinder track
    • First appearance of Judo and volleyball
    • First time a fiberglass pole was used in the pole vault
  155. what are 2 key notes about the 1964 winter games in Innsbruck?
    • Luge event was introduced
    • Alpine skiing was timed to a hundredth of a second
  156. who presided over the 1968 mexico city games?
    president gustavo diaz ordaz
  157. which games saw the world experiencing dramatic social and political changes that are still impacting society today.
    the 1968 games
  158. when was the vietnam war occuring?
    between 1957 and 1975
  159. what photo changed the sentiment of the vietnam war?
    eddie adams filmed a south vietnamese officer shooting a viet cong officer from point blank range
  160. what marked the end of the vietnam war?
    The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese army in April 1975 marked the end of the Vietnam War.
  161. what were the two major deaths of 1968?
    MLK and Robert F. Kennedy
  162. what was the tlatelolco massacre?
    the killing of hundreds of the students and innocent bystanders protesting the olympic games in mexico city.
  163. why was holding the games in mexico city contoversial?
    because of the high altitude. it negatively impacts endurance events and positively impacts sprint and throwing events
  164. what was introduced at the 1968 mexico games in the high jump?
    the fosbury flob by dick fosbury
  165. what are to important notes about the games in 1968 at mexico city regarding germany and new track material?
    germany would participate as two seperate nations gdr and frg. tracks athletes competed on tartan
  166. why did the tv ratings sky rocket at the 1968 mexico city games?
    • "Black Power" salute
    • First woman to light the Olympic flame
    • Numerous world records
    • Czech gymnasts turning away their heads during the playing of the USSR national anthem
  167. In mexico city 1968, during the first drugs and gender testing which athlete was the first to be disqualified for doping?
    hans-gunnar liljenwall of sweden
  168. what was one of the greatest controversies that arose form the 1968 mexico city games?
    the "Black Power" salute staged on the winner's podium by medalists Tommie Smith and John Carlos
  169. what happened as a result of john carlos and tommie smith for their black power salute?
    • Medals stripped
    • Banned for life from the Olympic Games
    • Arose from the civil rights movement in the US
    • Olympic Project for Human Rights begun by Dr. Harry Edwards
  170. who established the collective farms and forced labor projects in cambodia in 1975?
    Khmer roughe aka PolPot
  171. what was the camp david accord?
    the peace treaty between israel and egypt. president carter witnessed it
  172. what was the iran hostage crisis?
    • 500 Iranian student stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran in protest and took 52 U.S. citizens hostage
    • Held for 444 days and U.S. severed diplomatic ties; remains today
  173. who presided over the 1972 munich games?
    president gustave heinemann
  174. what were some north korean rules for their athletes who participated in the 1972 munich games?
    All must stay in private compound within village when not competing or training. No sightseeing or interaction with any others
  175. what did avery brundage do to try to get rhodesian participation in the 1972 munich games?
    he tried to get rhodesian athletes ioc identity cards.
  176. what happened to the favored wrestler chris taylor at munich in 1972?
    he lost in the first round
  177. what happened witha turkish referee who was a part of the chris taylor loss?
    he was found in violation of policies and banned from the games.
  178. what happened to bob seagren from the u.s. at the 1972 games?
    his pole vault was banned at the last minute
  179. at the munich games in 1972 who were the two athletes that were watching the games on t.v. when they saw an event that was about to start they werer supposed to be a part of?
    eddie hart and Rey Robinson
  180. when and where were the first winter olympic games held outside of europe or US?
    at sapporo, 1972
  181. at the 1972 winter olympic games who was the first athlete to openly admit to recieving cash payment from a ski manufacturer?
    karl schranz, $60,000 a year
  182. what did brundage try to do as a result of Karl Schranz taking money and being a proffesional who also participated in the olympics?
    Brundage made an example of Schranz and persuaded the IOC to have him expelled from Games & village
  183. who was the ioc president after avery brundage?
    lord killanin who presided over only two game 76' and 80' due to health concerns
  184. what was proposed at lord killanin's first ioc meeting in 73?
    • Establish a program to aid sports programs & athletes in third world countries. backed by T.V. revenue
    • Increase women's role in both the Games & the IOC
    • Drop the reference to "amateur" in the eligibility rules
    • Endorse athletes acceptance of financial assistance from NOC's or sports federations
  185. who presided over the 1976 montreal games?
    Queen Elizabeth II
  186. What were the financial blunders and problems of the 1976 montreal games?
    • Huge cost overruns in construction due to rampant corruption and cost overruns.
    • During bidding process, mayor of Montreal estimated a total budget of $300 million (US).
    • Montreal wound up with a 2 billion dollar deficit
  187. How did the two-china policy problem reemerge in montreal?
    PRC formed an olympic committee, rejoined olympics and asked canada to ban roc. Lord killanin proposed that both played played under different names. ROC reject offer and boycotted the games.

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