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- stimulates body cells to increase in size/divide
- esp. bone, cartilage, & muscle & epiphyseal disk
STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
1. In female, develop. of follicles (in eggs)
2. release of estrogen from follicle
3. In male, stimulates sperm production in testes
CALCITONIN OF THYROID: an increase in calcitonin
lowers blood Ca++;
stimulates kidney excretion of Ca++
How is CALCITONIN OF THYROID controled? describe the reaction.
- negative feedback:
- trigger = high blood Ca++ >release calcitonin > result = drop in blood Ca++
what hormone does the papthyroid gland release?
What effect does PTH have on PO4-3 & calcium?
PTH increases blood Ca++; decreases PO4-3
what is PTH's function?
stimulates osteoclasts ; stimulates kidneys to conserve Ca++
increases absorption of Ca++ from intestine into blood (by activating vitamin D)
Describe control of PTH
negative feedback: low Ca++ > increase PTH > increase Ca++
What is realeased from the ADRENAL CORTEX?
What does the Thyroid gland release?
What are the 2 Anter. Pit. hormones?
- GH (growth hormone)
- FSH (follical stinulating hormone)
increased aldosterone causes....
- Na+ to be conserved to the body;
- K+ to be excreted;
- water to be conserved; increases b. p.
Describe the control of Aldosterone
low Na+ or high K+ or decreased blood pressure will cause an increase in aldosterone;
What does the pancreas store?
What is the function of GLUCAGON OF PANCREAS?
targets liver to change glycogen to glucose to be released into blood
CONTROL OF GLUCAGON:
trigger = low blood glucose> integration = increased glucagon > = increased blood glucose
What is the finction of Insulin?
promotes glc uptake from blood by most cells, (except nervous and small blood vessels) > results in decreased blood glc
CONTROL OF INSULIN:
trigger= high blood glucose> integration= release of insulin > =decreased blood glucose
Wut r sum RBC characteris.?
- no nucleus (in blood); cannot reproduce;
- 1/3 of cell protein = hemoglobin (Hb)
CONTROL OF RBC PRODUCTION
TRIGGER = oxygen deficiency sensed by liver or kidney
ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) released by kidney
RESPONSE= EPO targets marrow to increase rbc production; more O2 to tissue
PHAGOCYTE (esp. Bacteria & fungi & antigen-antibody complexes)
Increased in parasitic worm attack; Increased in allergic attack
Granules release heparin = anticoagulant
Granules release histamine = inflammatory agent; Increased in allergies
used for IMMUNITY as T-cells or B-cells
Largest cell ; Large PHAGOCYTE
What are the 3 plama protiens?
- CLOTTING PROTEINS
- alpha and beta globulins: transport lipids & fat
- soluble vitamins;
gamma globulins = antibodies of immunity
fibrinogen, prothrombin ; made in liver
ALBUMINS (~60% plama protiens)
made in liver; maintain osmotic pressure of blood (for constant b.p.); blood buffer
what 3 vessels drain into RA?
- superior vena cava
- inferior vena cava
- coronary sinus (drains heart wall) (myocardial circulation)
pacemaker In right atrium; 75 bpm; fastest node in heart; Impulses to both atria
Atrial syncytium/internodal paths
Depolarization message spreads over both atria as one unit
if pacemaker 50 bpm,
In right atrium septum above tricuspid
0.1 sec delay> Now atrial systole can occur!
A-v bundle of his
In septum; insulated by skeleton;
A-v bundle branches
In septum to apex
Fires papillary muscles and wraps around each ventricle; Now ventricular systole can occur (after QRS)
- depolarization of atria FROM SA to internodals to AV node; followed by atrial contraction
depolarization of ventricles (Bundle to bundle branches to Purkinje’s); atria repolarize followed by ventricles contracting
T-WAVE .16 SEC = repolarization of ventricles (to resting potential)