Anatomy/Physiology II Final Review

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sglasgo
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Anatomy/Physiology II Final Review
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2011-12-14 23:36:12
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Anatomy Physiology II University Toledo Final Exam
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Review cards for Anatomy & Physiology II (MacAfee University of Toledo) final exam
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  1. GROWTH
    HORMONE (GH)
    • stimulates body cells to increase in size/divide
    • esp. bone, cartilage, & muscle & epiphyseal disk
  2. FOLLICLE
    STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
    1. In female, develop. of follicles (in eggs)

    2. release of estrogen from follicle

    3. In male, stimulates sperm production in testes
  3. CALCITONIN OF THYROID: an increase in calcitonin
    lowers blood Ca++;

    stimulates osteoblasts

    stimulates kidney excretion of Ca++
  4. How is CALCITONIN OF THYROID controled? describe the reaction.
    • negative feedback:
    • trigger = high blood Ca++ >release calcitonin > result = drop in blood Ca++
  5. what hormone does the papthyroid gland release?
    PTH
  6. What effect does PTH have on PO4-3 & calcium?
    PTH increases blood Ca++; decreases PO4-3
  7. what is PTH's function?
    stimulates osteoclasts ; stimulates kidneys to conserve Ca++

    increases absorption of Ca++ from intestine into blood (by activating vitamin D)
  8. Describe control of PTH
    negative feedback: low Ca++ > increase PTH > increase Ca++
  9. What is realeased from the ADRENAL CORTEX?
    Aldosterone
  10. What does the Thyroid gland release?
    Calcitonin
  11. What are the 2 Anter. Pit. hormones?
    • GH (growth hormone)
    • FSH (follical stinulating hormone)
  12. increased aldosterone causes....
    • Na+ to be conserved to the body;
    • K+ to be excreted;
    • water to be conserved; increases b. p.
  13. Describe the control of Aldosterone
    low Na+ or high K+ or decreased blood pressure will cause an increase in aldosterone;
  14. What does the pancreas store?
    • Glucagon
    • Insulin
  15. What is the function of GLUCAGON OF PANCREAS?
    targets liver to change glycogen to glucose to be released into blood
  16. CONTROL OF GLUCAGON:
    trigger = low blood glucose> integration = increased glucagon > = increased blood glucose
  17. What is the finction of Insulin?
    promotes glc uptake from blood by most cells, (except nervous and small blood vessels) > results in decreased blood glc
  18. CONTROL OF INSULIN:
    trigger= high blood glucose> integration= release of insulin > =decreased blood glucose
  19. Wut r sum RBC characteris.?
    • no nucleus (in blood); cannot reproduce;
    • 1/3 of cell protein = hemoglobin (Hb)
  20. CONTROL OF RBC PRODUCTION
    TRIGGER = oxygen deficiency sensed by liver or kidney

    ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) released by kidney

    RESPONSE= EPO targets marrow to increase rbc production; more O2 to tissue
  21. NEUTROPHIL
    PHAGOCYTE (esp. Bacteria & fungi & antigen-antibody complexes)
  22. EOSINOPHIL
    Increased in parasitic worm attack; Increased in allergic attack
  23. BASOPHIL
    Granules release heparin = anticoagulant

    Granules release histamine = inflammatory agent; Increased in allergies
  24. LYMPHOCYTE
    used for IMMUNITY as T-cells or B-cells
  25. MONOCYTES
    Largest cell ; Large PHAGOCYTE
  26. What are the 3 plama protiens?
    • ALBUMINS
    • CLOTTING PROTEINS
    • GLOBULINS
  27. GLOBULINS
    • alpha and beta globulins: transport lipids & fat
    • soluble vitamins;

    gamma globulins = antibodies of immunity
  28. CLOTTING PROTEINS
    fibrinogen, prothrombin ; made in liver
  29. ALBUMINS (~60% plama protiens)
    made in liver; maintain osmotic pressure of blood (for constant b.p.); blood buffer
  30. what 3 vessels drain into RA?
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
    • coronary sinus (drains heart wall) (myocardial circulation)
  31. SA node
    pacemaker In right atrium; 75 bpm; fastest node in heart; Impulses to both atria
  32. Atrial syncytium/internodal paths
    Depolarization message spreads over both atria as one unit
  33. A-v node
    if pacemaker 50 bpm,

    In right atrium septum above tricuspid

    0.1 sec delay> Now atrial systole can occur!
  34. A-v bundle of his
    In septum; insulated by skeleton;
  35. A-v bundle branches
    In septum to apex
  36. Purkinje fibers
    Fires papillary muscles and wraps around each ventricle; Now ventricular systole can occur (after QRS)
  37. P-WAVE
    • 0.08SEC
    • depolarization of atria FROM SA to internodals to AV node; followed by atrial contraction
  38. QRS COMPLEX
    0.08 SEC

    depolarization of ventricles (Bundle to bundle branches to Purkinje’s); atria repolarize followed by ventricles contracting

    T-WAVE .16 SEC = repolarization of ventricles (to resting potential)

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